BREWSTER F2A BUFFALO ACES OF WORLD WAR 2 PDF

Navy issued a requirement for a carrier -based fighter intended to replace the Grumman F3F biplane. Brown, was one of two aircraft designs that were initially considered. The U. While the XF4F-1 would not enter production, it would later re-emerge as a monoplane, the Wildcat.

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Navy issued a requirement for a carrier -based fighter intended to replace the Grumman F3F biplane. Brown, was one of two aircraft designs that were initially considered. The U. While the XF4F-1 would not enter production, it would later re-emerge as a monoplane, the Wildcat. Brewster XF2A-1 prototype The new Brewster fighter had a modern look with a stubby fuselage, mid-set monoplane wings and a host of advanced features.

It was all-metal, with flush-riveted, stressed aluminum construction, although control surfaces were still fabric-covered. The XF2A-1 also featured split flaps, a hydraulically operated retractable main undercarriage and partially retractable tailwheel , and a streamlined framed canopy.

However as was still common at this time , the aircraft lacked self-sealing fuel tanks and pilot armor. The aircraft was then tested in in the Langley Research Center full-scale wind tunnel, where it was determined that certain factors were contributing to parasitic drag. The added weight of two additional.

Plagued by production difficulties, Brewster delivered only 11 F2A-1 aircraft to the Navy; the remainder of the order was later diverted to the Finnish Air Force in modified form under the export designation Model LT John S. Thach tipped this F2A-1 onto its nose on Saratoga , March F2A-3s serving as U. Navy training aircraft at NAS Miami , — A later variant, the F2A-2, of which 43 were ordered by the U. Navy, included a more powerful R engine, a better propeller, and integral flotation gear, but still lacked pilot armor and self-sealing tanks.

Both the F2A-1 and the F2A-2 variants of the Brewster were liked by early Navy and Marine pilots, including Pappy Boyington , who praised the good turning and maneuvering abilities of the aircraft. Not real fast, but the little [aircraft] could turn and roll in a phone booth.

Navy and Marine Corps. A total of examples were ordered in January However, the two speed [19] supercharged Cyclone engine in the F2A-3 was an excellent "cruising" engine and as such the F2A-3 had some value and saw initial service on the carriers Saratoga and Lexington.

Even in late it was apparent that the Buffalo was rapidly becoming obsolete. Soon after deliveries of the F2A-3 began, the Navy decided to eliminate the type altogether. By then, considered a second line aircraft, some were transferred to the U. Those which still remained on board aircraft carriers narrowly missed a combat opportunity when a relief mission was dispatched to Wake Island, but the relief force was withdrawn before completing the mission.

Shortly thereafter, F2A-3s still in naval service were transferred to training squadrons for use as advanced trainers.

Operational history[ edit ] The first unit to be equipped with the F2A-1 was Lt. That is all they are good for". Operated by No. The only strict requirements laid down by Finnish authorities were that the aircraft be already operational and able to use octane fuel.

The BE was also "de-navalized" before shipment: equipment such as tailhooks and life raft containers were removed. However, five of the six delivered during the war became combat-ready before it ended. Other nicknames were Pylly-Valtteri lit. This was in part due to the efforts of the Finnish mechanics, who solved a problem that plagued the Wright Cyclone engine by inverting one of the piston rings in each cylinder, which had a positive effect on reliability.

The Brewster Buffalo earned a reputation in Finnish Air Force service as one of their more successful fighter aircraft, with the Fiat G. Most of the pilots of Lentolaivue 24 were Winter War combat veterans. This squadron claimed a total of Soviet aircraft with Bs, while losing 15 Buffalos in combat. Five SBs were claimed as downed. Subsequent attacks were repelled by LLv24 pilots who, by dusk, had flown 77 missions. The default tactic was the four-plane "parvi" swarm , with a pair flying lower as bait, and a higher pair to dive on enemy interceptors.

The Soviet Air Force was never able to counteract this tactic. The top-scoring B pilot was Hans Wind , with 39 kills. By late , the lack of spares, wear-and-tear, and better Soviet fighters and training greatly reduced the effectiveness of Finnish Bs, though LeLv 26 pilots would still claim some 35 victories against Soviet aircraft in mid The last victory by a Buffalo against Soviet aircraft was claimed over the Karelian Isthmus on 17 June Five Bs continued to fly until , with last flights of Brewsters by the Finnish Air Force on 14 September , when they were stored until scrapped in Navy F2A The arrestor hook and liferaft container were removed, and the aircraft was modified with a slightly longer tail.

Only one aircraft [41] [42] [N 7] reached France by the time Germany launched its Blitzkrieg in the West on 10 May The Buffalo was later captured intact by the Germans, and it was partially rediscovered near Darmstadt in Facing a shortage of combat aircraft in January , the British government established the British Purchasing Commission to acquire U. Among the U. The remaining 32 B aircraft ordered by the Belgians, suspended at the fall of France, were passed on to the United Kingdom.

The Brewster factory removed the Navy life raft container and arrestor hook , while adding many new items of equipment, including a British Mk III reflector gun sight , a gun camera, a larger fixed pneumatic tire tail wheel, fire extinguisher, engine shutters, a larger battery, and reinforced armor plating and armored glass behind the canopy windshield. The semi-retractable tail wheel had been exchanged for a larger fixed model, which was also less aerodynamic.

Many of the pilots assigned the Buffalo lacked adequate training and experience in the type. A total of 20 of the original Buffalos were lost in training accidents during Although the Mk I had. Against the Nakajima Ki "Nate", the overloaded Brewsters could at least hold their own if given time to get to altitude, and at first achieved a respectable number of kills.

However, the appearance of ever greater numbers of Japanese fighters, including markedly superior types such as the Nakajima Ki "Oscar" soon overwhelmed the Buffalo pilots, both in the air and on the ground. In the end, more than 60 Brewster Mk I BE aircraft were shot down in combat, 40 destroyed on the ground, and approximately 20 more destroyed in accidents. Additionally, most of the Japanese aircraft shot down by the Buffalos were bombers.

Burma[ edit ] No. At the outbreak of war[ clarification needed ], only 71 had arrived in the Dutch East Indies , and not all were in service. A small number served briefly at Singapore before being withdrawn for the defense of Borneo and Java. Around the same time the Dutch started to use tracer ammunition as well. These two improved their hit ratio. Still, their lack of heavy machine guns. Although reinforced by British Commonwealth Buffalo Mk I BE aircraft retreating from Malaya, the Dutch squadrons faced superior numbers in the air, usually odds of one against two or three.

Timely early warning from British radar would have countered this deficit, especially in avoiding unnecessary losses from raids on airfields, but the British government had decided too late to send these: the first British radar stations became operational only towards the end of February.

In a major engagement above Semplak on 19 February , eight Dutch Brewster fighters intercepted a formation of about 35 Japanese bombers with an escort of about 20 Zeros. The Brewster pilots destroyed 11 Japanese aircraft and lost four Brewsters; two Dutch pilots died.

Jacob van Helsdingen led this flight on its final sortie that day, and was credited with a Zero before he was killed. August Deibel the most successful Dutch pilots on the Buffalo with three victories each. Dutch pilots claimed 55 enemy aircraft destroyed. Fifth Air Force in Australia. All of these USAAF aircraft were lent to the RAAF, with which they were used mainly for air defence duties outside frontline areas, photo-reconnaissance and gunnery training.

Wake Island fell on the following day. Parks , whose aircraft division did not fly in paired flights of mutually supporting aircraft. After attacking a formation of 30—40 Aichi D3A 1 "Val" dive bombers escorted by 36 Zeros , the Marines, flying in two divisions of aircraft, downed several Japanese bombers before the escorting Zeros reacted; a furious dogfight developed.

Thirteen out of 20 Buffalos were lost; [73] of the six Wildcats, only two remained flyable at the end of the mission. The losses included the Marine air commander, Major Parks, who bailed out of his burning Buffalo, only to be strafed by Zeros after parachuting into the sea. One F2A-3 pilot, Marine Captain William Humberd, dove away from his pursuers, then attacked a Zero in a head-on pass, shooting his opponent down. Other Buffalos had not been fitted with plate armor behind the pilot, making them vulnerable to even a single bullet or shell.

Losses were aggravated due to the Japanese practice of strafing pilots who had bailed out. Charles S. Hughes, whose Buffalo was forced to retire at the start of the raid due to engine trouble, had a ringside view of the aerial combat: The Zeros came in strafing immediately afterward. I saw two Brewsters trying to fight the Zeros. One was shot down and the other was saved by ground fires covering his tail.

Both looked like they were tied to a string while the Zeros made passes at them. Charles M. Kunz reported that after successfully downing two Val bombers, he was attacked by Japanese fighters: I was at an altitude of about 9, ft, and shoved over in a dive trying to shake the plane on my tail until I was about 20 feet from the water.

I glanced out of the rear and saw that it was a Zero fighter. I continued flying on a rapid turning course at full throttle when I was hit in the head by a glancing bullet. After he fired a few short bursts he left as I had been in a general direction of degrees heading away from the island. My plane was badly shot up In my opinion, the Zero fighter has been far underestimated. I think it is probably one of the finest fighters in the present war.

As for the F2A-3, or Brewster trainer , it should be in Miami as a training plane, rather than used as a first-line fighter.

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Brewster F2A Buffalo Aces of World War 2

Un Buffalo della serie F2A-1, in volo. Il BuAer, pur valutando soddisfacente tale proposta richiese infatti la fornitura di un prototipo per le valutazioni assegnandogli la designazione ufficiale XF4F-1 volle nel contempo assicurarsi un possibile sostituto interpellando anche la Brewster Aeronautical Corporation. Il Grumman fu il primo dei due velivoli ad essere portato in volo, il 2 settembre , seguito dal Brewster XF2A-1 il 2 dicembre di quello stesso anno. Cellula[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Il Buffalo era un monoplano ad ala media, di struttura interamente metallica.

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Brewster F2A Buffalo

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