Developed in by Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev and expanded upon by Martian astrophysicist Yvenn Strom, this system has been used to describe all the alien civilizations in the galaxy. Contents [ show ] Pre-Sapient Civilization A pre-sapient civilization is a group or band of beings that show rudimentary intelligence. They have mastered basic tool use, and travel in packs. They are beginning to understand how to manipulate their environment. Embryonic Civilization An embryonic civilization or "E-Civ" is one that has just discovered how to manipulate energy.
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Antimatter in large quantities would have a mechanism to produce power on a scale several magnitudes above our current level of technology.
In antimatter-matter collisions, the entire rest mass of the particles is converted to radiant energy. Their energy density energy released per mass is about four orders of magnitude greater than that from using nuclear fission , and about two orders of magnitude greater than the best possible yield from fusion. Artificially producing antimatter - according to current understanding of the laws of physics - involves first converting energy into mass, so no net gain results.
Artificially created antimatter is only usable as a medium of energy storage, not as an energy source, unless future technological developments contrary to the conservation of the baryon number , such as a CP Violation in favour of antimatter allow the conversion of ordinary matter into anti-matter.
Theoretically, humans may in the future have the capability to cultivate and harvest a number of naturally occurring sources of antimatter. A Dyson sphere or Dyson swarm and similar constructs are hypothetical megastructures originally described by Freeman Dyson as a system of orbiting solar power satellites meant to enclose a star completely and capture most or all of its energy output. Antimatter is likely to be produced as an industrial byproduct of a number of megascale engineering processes such as the aforementioned star lifting and therefore could be recycled.
White holes , if they exist, theoretically could provide large amounts of energy from collecting the matter propelling outwards. Capturing the energy of gamma-ray bursts is another theoretically possible power source for a highly advanced civilization.
The emissions from quasars can be readily compared to those of small active galaxies and could provide a massive power source if collectable. Civilization implications There are many historical examples of human civilization undergoing large-scale transitions, such as the Industrial Revolution. Of course, these theoretical speculations may not become problems in reality thanks to evolution or the application of future engineering and technology.
Extensions to the original scale Many extensions and modifications to the Kardashev scale have been proposed. Such a civilization approaches or surpasses the limits of speculation based on current scientific understanding, and may not be possible. Frank J. Metrics other than pure power usage have also been proposed. In this classification, Earth is a 0. Type Omega-minus is capable of manipulating the basic structure of space and time.
Robert Zubrin adapts the Kardashev scale to refer to how widespread a civilization is in space, rather than to its energy use. Type I A Type I civilization extracts its energy, information, and raw-materials from fusion power, hydrogen, and other "high-density" renewable-resources; is capable of interplanetary spaceflight , interplanetary communication, megascale engineering , and colonization , medical and technological singularity , planetary engineering , world government , trade and defense , and stellar system -scale influence; but is still vulnerable to extinction.
Many science fiction stories that take place in the near year future are type I. Type II A Type II civilization extracts fusion energy, information, and raw-materials from multiple solar systems; it is capable of evolutionary intervention , interstellar travel , interstellar communication , stellar engineering , terraforming , and star cluster -scale influence; the resulting proliferation and diversification would theoretically negate the probability of extinction.
Type III A Type III civilization extracts fusion energy, information, and raw-materials from all possible star-clusters; it is capable of intergalactic travel via wormholes ,  intergalactic communication, galactic engineering and galaxy-scale influence. Type V and beyond Such hypothetical civilizations have either transcended their universe of origin or arose within a multiverse or other higher-order membrane of existence, and are capable of universe -scale manipulation or creation of individual discrete universes from an external frame of reference.
In fiction, their "god-like" artifacts or endowed abilities such as monolith find their way into the hands of relatively juvenile "Type 0" civilizations such as present-day humanity. Type V civilizations can sometimes be found in comic book continuities. White attempted to create a theory explaining the entire history of humanity. The most important factor in his theory is technology : Social systems are determined by technological systems, wrote White in his book, echoing the earlier theory of Lewis Henry Morgan.
As a measure of society advancement, he proposed the measure of energy consumption of a given society thus his theory is known as the energy theory of cultural evolution. He differentiates between five stages of human development. In the first stage, people use energy of their own muscles. In the second stage, they use energy of domesticated animals. In the third stage, they use the energy of plants which White refers to as agricultural revolution. In the fourth stage, they learn to use the energy of natural resources—such as coal, oil, and gas.
Finally, in the fifth stage, they harness nuclear energy. Thus the Kardashev scale may not be relevant or useful for classifying extraterrestrial civilizations.
Échelle de Kardachev
Observational evidence[ edit ] In , a study of galactic mid- infrared emissions came to the conclusion that "Kardashev Type-III civilizations are either very rare or do not exist in the local Universe ". Antimatter in large quantities would have a mechanism to produce power on a scale several magnitudes above the current level of technology. Their energy density energy released per mass is about four orders of magnitude greater than that from using nuclear fission , and about two orders of magnitude greater than the best possible yield from fusion. Artificially producing antimatter—according to current understanding of the laws of physics—involves first converting energy into mass, which yields no net energy. Artificially created antimatter is only usable as a medium of energy storage, not as an energy source, unless future technological developments contrary to the conservation of the baryon number , such as a CP violation in favour of antimatter allow the conversion of ordinary matter into anti-matter.
Physics February 25, We generally say that today human civilization has reached to a very good stage in technology. But do you know that there is a scale to measure these technological advancements of a civilization and that scale is Kardashev Scale. So let us know about this scale and stages of civilization development. Kardashev Scale: Nikolai Kardashev, a Russian astrophysicist created the so called Kardashev civilization classification scale. Kardashev scale classifies civilizations depending on the basis of their energy harvesting and consuming capabilities. On that basis the civilizations are classified into three categories namely Type-1, Type-2 and Type -3 but Type-4 and Type-5 civilization can also be imagined. Carl Sagan suggested a rough formula to rate the civilization on the basis of their energy consumption Note: this formula is not a part of Kardashev theory.