SILAPATHIKARAM IN TAMIL PDF

Then Kannagi showed her anklet to the King. On comparing it very carefully with the remaining anklet of the pair belonging to the Queen, he realised that Kovalan had been innocent. When he saw it the parasol fell from his head and the sceptre trembled in his hand. For the first time I have failed to protect my people.

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You can help by adding to it. The festivities begin at the temple of the white elephant [Airavata, the mount of Indra] and they continue in the temples of Unborn Shiva , of Murugan [beauteous god of Youth], of nacre white Valliyon [Balarama] brother of Krishna , of dark Vishnu called Nediyon, and of Indra himself with his string of pearls and his victorious parasol.

Vedic rituals are performed and stories from the Puranas are told, while temples of the Jains and their charitable institutions can be seen about the city. Kannaki and Kovalan are a newly married couple, in love, and living in bliss. He falls for her, leaves Kannaki and moves in with Matavi.

He spends lavishly on her. During the festival for Indra , the rain god, there is a singing competition. Matavi then sings a song about a man who betrayed his lover. Each interprets the song as a message to the other.

Kovalan feels Matavi is unfaithful to him, and leaves her. Kannaki is still waiting for him. She takes him back. Kovalan is penniless and destitute. He confesses his mistakes to Kannaki. She forgives him and tells him the pain his unfaithfulness gave her. Then she encourages her husband to rebuild their life together and gives him one of her jeweled anklets to sell to raise starting capital. The king arrests Kovalan and then executes him, without the due checks and processes of justice.

She learns what has happened. The king accepts his mistake. Kannaki curses the king and curses the people of Madurai, tearing off her breast and throwing it at the gathered public, triggering the flames of a citywide inferno. The remorseful king dies in shock. Madurai is burnt to the ground because of her curse. Gods and goddesses meet Kannaki, the king of gods Indra himself comes with his chariot, and Kannaki goes to heaven with Indra. The royal family of the Chera kingdom learns about her, resolves to build a temple with Kannaki as the featured goddess.

They go to the Himalayas, bring a stone, carve her image, call her goddess Pattini, dedicate a temple, order daily prayers, and perform a royal sacrifice. This is likely a later addition to the older epic.

It has verses in other meters and contains five songs also in a different meter. These features suggest that the epic was performed in the form of stage drama that mixed recitation of cantos with the singing of songs. For example, it describes the fate of Poompuhar suffering the same agony as experienced by Ayodhya when Rama leaves for exile to the forest as instructed by his father.

These were popular and episodes from such maha-kavya were performed as a form of dance-drama in public. The Silappatikaram is a Tamil epic that belongs to the pan-India kavya epic tradition. Dennis Hudson — a World Religions and Tamil literature scholar, the Silappatikaram is the earliest and first complete Tamil reference to Pillai Nila, Nappinnai, Radha , who is described in the epic as the cowherd lover of Krishna.

In the canto where Kannaki is waiting for Kovalan to return after selling her anklet to a Madurai merchant, she is in a village with cowgirls. The epic is considered as the "first consciously national work" and evidence of the fact that the "Tamils had by that time [mid 1st-millennium CE] attained nationhood", [55] or the first expression of a sense of Tamil cultural integrity and Tamil dominance.

According to Norman Cutler, this theme runs in recent works such as the re-rendering of the Silappadikaram into Kannakip Puratcikkappiyam by Paratitacan, and the play Cilappatikaram: Natakak Kappiyam by M. Yet, states Cutler, the same book places an "undeniable prestige" for a "rock from the Himalayas", the "river Ganges" and other symbols from the north to honor Kannaki.

These and numerous other details in the epic were neither of Dravidian roots nor icons, rather they reflect an acceptance of and reverence for certain shared pan-Indian cultural rituals, symbols and values, what Himalayas and Ganges signify to the Indic culture.

The epic rhetorically does present a vision of a Tamil imperium, yet it also "emphatically is not exclusively Tamil", states Cutler. In addition, they give help and get help from the Jains and the Ajivikas. Yet, all these references are embedded in a cordial community, where all share the same ideas and belief in karma and related premises. The major festivals described in the epic are pan-Indian and these festivals are also found in ancient Sanskrit literature.

Swaminatha Iyer CE , a Shaiva Hindu and Tamil scholar, rediscovered the palm-leaf manuscripts of the original epic poem, along with those of the Sangam literature, in Hindu monasteries near Kumbhakonam.

These manuscripts were preserved and copied in temples and monasteries over the centuries, as palm-leaf manuscripts degrade in the tropical climate. This rediscovery in the second half of the 19th-century and the consequent publication brought Cilappatikaram to readers and scholars outside the temples. This helped trigger an interest in ancient Tamil literature. Aiyar published its first partial edition in , the full edition in Since then the epic poem has been translated into many languages.

Hart , a professor of Tamil language at the University of California, Berkeley , "the Cilappatikaram is to Tamil what the Iliad and Odyssey are to Greek — its importance would be difficult to overstate. Ramanujan Book Prize for Translation. The novel having adapted the original plot and characters, it revolves around the ancient South Indian traditions, also trying to fill the gaps in the history using multiple narratives.

Shivaprakash a leading poet and playwright in Kannada has also re-narrated a part from the epic namely Madurekanda. He had also written a 1. Chinnappa played the lead as Kovalan. The movie faithfully follows the story of Silappathikaram and was a hit when it was released.

The movie Poompuhar , penned by M. Karunanidhi is also based on Silapathikaram. Silappatikaram also occupies much of the screen time in the 15th and 16th episodes of the television series Bharat Ek Khoj.

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