Scenery, props, costumes, lighting, sound, makeup and stage management will be explored. Attendance at evening and weekend theatre performances is required. Learning Objectives To learn and apply basic theatre terminology, dramaturgy, and other theatre fundamentals To explore different careers in technical theatre, including directors, designers, and other theatre practitioners To explore and effectively demonstrate creative design skills that produce functional scenery, properties, lighting, sound, costumes, and makeup in a theatrical production To demonstrate an understanding of the safety requirements and efficient use of tools and materials used in a theatrical production To apply technical knowledge and skills to collaboratively and safely create functional scenery, properties, lighting, sound, costumes, and makeup in a theatrical production To create production schedules, stage management plans, promotional ideas, and business and house procedures for a theatrical production Expectations Be on time. Tardiness will not be tolerated. Work hard. Come to all class periods with all necessary materials.
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It is not legal advice. It is not intended to replace the OHSA or the regulations. For further information please see full disclaimer. Preamble This guideline deals with the design and construction of scenery, and its installation and use in performance venues, rehearsal venues, and temporary rehearsal installations. It does not deal with worker safety in the scene shop or during transportation. The Design, Construction, and Installation sections are not intended to be a comprehensive exploration of all the engineering aspects of scenery.
They identify the health and safety considerations to be incorporated into the design and construction process, and leave to the user decisions on how to address those needs. The construction, design and complexity of the scenery may need a professional engineer to ensure the scenery conforms to good engineering practice and safety legislation.
Electrical materials and equipment should always be installed and used in accordance with the Ontario Electrical Code. Reference should always be made, as appropriate, to the Electrical Guideline set out in the Safety Guidelines for the Live Performance Industry in Ontario. Definitions Note: These definitions are provided for clarity and guidance only. Deck-supported scenic elements Elements that derive most or all of their support from sitting directly on the stage, or on another scenic element.
Deck-supported scenic elements: Static deck-supported scenic elements Elements which sit in one position, and are not intended for movement after fit-up. Deck-supported scenic elements: Movable deck-supported scenic elements Elements supported by another scenic element or system capable of movement trap, elevator, etc.
Flown elements may be brought in to touch the deck, but are not deck-supported. Flown scenic elements: Dead-hung flown scenic elements Elements suspended by a fixed length of chain, rope, cable or other extension from a fixed anchor point, and which are not intended for movement after fit-up.
Flown scenic elements: Movable flown scenic elements Elements suspended from any system capable of movement fly system, block and fall, hoist, winch, etc. Hazard range The area inside which injury is possible Installation and removal: Load-in take-in, fit-up, set-up The delivery, assembly and installation of scenic elements at the rehearsal or performance venue, including suspension or erection as appropriate.
Installation and removal: Changeover The change of scenic elements from that of one production to that of another typically in a repertory theatre , but which does not involve a load-in or load-out. Installation and removal: Load-out tear-down, strike, take-down The dismantling and removal of scenic elements from the rehearsal or performance venue.
Permanent scenery All scenic elements that are normally in place on the stage and are not added for an individual production, including such items as a false proscenium, tormentor, teasers, main drape, cyclorama, masking drapery, etc. Scenic element Any unit of scenery used as part of the staging of a production, including drops, scrims, flats, trucks, wagons, etc. Weight facsimile A construct with the same weight and centre of gravity as those of the performer s to be carried by a movable scenic element.
Design, construction and installation General A risk assessment should be conducted by a competent person on all scenery, to include Identification of Hazards, Assessment and Control of Identified Hazards. The design and construction process should seek to eliminate hazards. Where hazards cannot be completely eliminated, controls should be identified and implemented to minimize the hazard. Such controls should include appropriate personal protective equipment, choreography of movement, adequate rehearsal, supervision, information and instruction for, and consultation with those individuals within the Hazard Range.
Each job should be evaluated to assess the number of crew sufficient to do the job safely. Individuals working with scenery should be competent in all skills that may be needed in their work. To ensure compliance with the law, workplace parties must always refer to the OHSA and its regulations.
All scenic elements If an element is resting on the deck but is primarily supported by suspension, it should be treated as a flown element. If an element is supported by the deck but requires some kind of suspension for additional support, reference should be made to the section on Flown Elements. The design, construction, and installation of scenic elements in all intended configurations should address: unimpeded operation of emergency equipment e.
Design and construction should address the weight, balance, size and shape of each scenic element, including: its ability to be easily and safely transported, including being carried by crew during load-in and load-out its ability to be easily and safely assembled, dismantled, manipulated, installed and struck by the number of crew to be engaged for the set-up, changeover and strike, and the manner in which it is intended to be used and its suitability for the purpose.
If its use changes, then the suitability of the element will need to be reviewed. Tools, hardware, machinery and other technology should be appropriate and adequate for the intended use.
Scenery should be constructed using fire-resistant materials and coatings, or made fire-resistant by treatment with a flame retardant, particularly where there are proximate sources of heat, or other causes of ignition.
It is strongly recommended that local fire authorities, or the authority having jurisdiction, be consulted in determining requirements. Drapery shall be treated as required with flame retardant or constructed with fire-retardant materials, particularly where there are proximate sources of heat, or other causes of ignition.
It is strongly recommended that local fire authorities, or the body having jurisdiction, be consulted in determining requirements. Temporary installations should never be retained for permanent use without fully reassessing their suitability for all likely uses over an indefinite life span. Before changing the use of permanent scenery, there should be a review to ensure that such changes will not result in loads or operational requirements exceeding those originally anticipated and allowed for at the time of construction and installation.
Where loading or usage limits are not clearly identified for permanent scenic elements, these should be determined before making such changes. Flown elements All flown elements should be designed and constructed specifically to be flown.
Special consideration should be given to: the weight of the element itself the weight of any additional load to be carried by the element the combined mass, including the mass of any counterweight, as it might affect controllability in acceleration, movement and deceleration the balance of the element, as it might affect stability in suspension and even distribution of the weight among its suspension point engineering the element appropriately for its size, shape, use and anticipated load, and ensuring the size and weight of the element will fit its use and the restrictions imposed by its location.
For movable flown scenic elements that are intended to be fixed during performance, any supporting system capable of movement should be immobilised. For reference see section 76 of Regulation Deck-supported elements All deck-supported elements should be designed and constructed specifically to be supported from below. Special consideration should be given to: the weight of the element itself the weight of any additional load to be carried by the element balance of the element, as it might affect stability in its location, even distribution of the weight on its supporting surface, and possible need for some suspension support engineering the element appropriately for its size, shape, use and anticipated load, and ensuring the size and weight of the element will fit the use and restrictions imposed by its location.
For movable deck-supported scenic elements that are intended to be static in performance, any other supporting element or system capable of movement should be immobilised. All operators should have a direct line of sight to moving elements under their control. Spotters should be used when the direct line of sight of the operator is restricted.
There should be clear and direct communication between the spotter s and the operator. All movable elements should be tested in their normal range of motion at their anticipated speed of operation, with additional allowance being made for unexpected needs or occurrences. These tests should be conducted in the shop if applicable , upon fit-up and before each rehearsal and performance.
The chain of command for the routine movement of elements, and for unexpected situations and emergencies, should be established and clearly communicated to all concerned. During tech rehearsal, many more people may be present during movement than would be in performance; these people should also be familiarized with the movement of the element. Any performers, non-operating crew, and others who may be within hazard range of a movable element in operation should be informed of the appropriate action to take in an unexpected situation or emergency.
Initial technical rehearsals should take place at reduced speed where feasible and in work light. Final technical rehearsals should provide sufficient opportunity for everyone involved to become comfortable with the operation and movement of the element when used under performance lighting conditions and at performance speed. When changes are made in the use of the element, new technical rehearsals should be conducted at reduced speed where feasible and in work light.
In design, construction and installation, special consideration should be given to: clearance distances from other elements guidance to ensure the intended path of movement e. Stage lifts and revolves should be appropriate to their use and the anticipated load, with additional allowance being made for unexpected needs or occurrences.
Movable elements that carry people Any system designed and manufactured to carry people should have a built-in load-bearing capacity as per good engineering practices , additional load capacity, mechanical and control redundancies and sign-off by a Professional Engineer or other competent person.
If it falls within the practice of engineering then only a professional engineer should sign. Initial testing should be performed with an actual weight facsimile of the performer s to be carried by the element.
Daily testing should be performed to ensure the element continues to operate safely and as expected. Stage time should be provided, dedicated solely to the training of the persons carried by the element and to the rehearsal of the effect, so that all those involved are completely comfortable. As a best practice this height should be reduced to 1.
Inspection and maintenance should be done by a competent person. Flown scenery should be inspected on a schedule consistent with the frequency and use of the scenic elements. The fly system shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person prior to its first use and thereafter as often as necessary, and in any case, at least annually.
See also the Rigging Systems Guideline. Call toll-free Call anytime to report critical injuries, fatalities or work refusals. In an emergency, always call immediately. More information.
Stock Scenery Construction Handbook by Bill Raoul (1999, Paperback)
Products by Broadway Press Inc.
THEATRE TECH I
Stock Scenery Construction : A Handbook