The compositions are designed to be sung, even if being played on instruments. In addition to the raga and tala, there are two additional important elements that can be found within the Carnatic music theory. This is the musical pitch of a composition. Graded pitches within an octave are common. There are 22 total sounds that can be distinguished by listeners, though many converge upon themselves, creating a musical expression within the mind.

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Please Sign Up to get full document. A group of musical sounds, which are called swaras that give melody and pleasant feelings to the ears, is called Sangeetham. Ancient writers hold the view that vocal music, instrumental music and dance together constituted sangeetham. Later, dance was separated from the first two. Shruthi is an audible sound which can be heard distinctly. It is a musical sound which a well trained human ear is capable of distinguishing.

It is the Key note or Adhara Shadjam, based on which all other Swaras are derived. Swara is a musical note which is pleasing to the ears. There are seven basic swaras, known as Saptha Swaras. They are 1. Shadjam shortly — Sa 2. Rishabham Ri 3. Ghandaram Ga 4. Madhyamam Ma 5. Panchamam Pa 6. Dhaivatham Dha 7. They are called Achala Swaras.

The remaining five swaras admit varieties and they are called Chala Swaras. In combination, both Achala and Chala swaras yield 12 different musical notes and they are called Dwadhasa Swarasthanas. The Dwadasa Swarasthanas are 1. Suddha Rishabam………………….. Su Ri 3. Chatusruthi Rishabam…………….. Cha Ri 4. Sadharana Gandharam…………… Sa Ga 5. Anthara Ghandaram………………. An Ga 6. Suddha Madhyamam……………… Su Ma 7. Prathi Madhyamam………………… Pra Ma 8. Suddha Dhaivatham……………….

Su Dha Chatusruthi Dhaivatham…………. Cha Dha Kaisiki Nishadham…………………. Kai Ni Kakali Nishadham………………….. Ka Ni2 Arohana — Series of Swaras in the ascending order of pitch.

Avarohana — Series of swaras in the descending order of pitch. There are Five Sthayis. Anumandra Sthayi 2. Mandra Sthayi 3. Madhya Sthayi 4. Tara Sthayi 5. Ati-Tara Sthayi The Sthayi in which we normally sing is the madhya sthayi. The swaras following the upper Shadjam of madhya shtayi are in Tara Sthayi, and the swaras following upper shadjam of tara sthayi are in Ati-Tara Stayi.

Dhathu — The swara part of the musical composition is known as Dhathu. Mathu — The sahitya part of a musical composition is known as Mathu. Akshara Kala — Unit time in music is called Akshara Kala.

Thrikaala — Kala is refers to the speed of the musical piece. There are Three Kalas, 1. Prathama Kala — First degree of speed. One note is sung in one Akshara Kala. Dwitiya Kala — Second degree of speed, twice faster than Prathama kala.

Two notes are sung in one Akshara Kala. Tritiya Kala — Third degree of speed, twice faster than Dwitiya Kala. Four notes are sung in one Akshara Kala. Avartha — It is the completion of a tala angas or time measure. Angas, Shadangas — In order to facilitate easy and accurate method of reckoning musical time, six angas have been devised. They are known as Shadangas or six angas. They are Name of the Anga 1. They are called Principle Thalangas. Here is the list of Principle Thalangas along with their way of counting 1.

Anudrutam U — One Beat of the Palm on the lap 2. It is called Laghu Jaati bedha. There are 5 Jaatis. Trisra Jaati 3 Kriyas 2. Chaturasra Jaati 4 Kriyas 3. Kanda Jaati 5 Kriyas 4. Misra Jaati 7 Kriyas 5. All these Seven thalas are made of Three basic Angas 1.

Laghu 2. Drutham 3. There are 5 Jaathis of Laghu with their corresponding akshara kalas here 1. Ex: 1. Note: If more than one laghu is present in the thala, all the laghus have the same jaati. The union of Dhatu and Matu is known as Geetha, ie. Geethas are the simplest of melodies. The term geetha literally means a song. But in music it signifies a particular type of composition. The music of the geetha is simple melodic extension of the raga in which it is composed.

Its tempo is uniform. It is a continuous composition without the sections pallavi, anupallavi and charanam.

The geetha is sung without repetition from the beginning to end. Some geethas have two sections Khandikas and some have three. Some geethas are concluded by repeating a portion of the opening part. Geethas are learnt after a course in the preliminary swara exercises and alankaras.

There are geethas in all the sapta talas and their varieties. Geethas are of two kinds. Geethas are set in medium tempo. There are no sangatis or variations and the flow of music is natural. Neither intricate combinations nor terse sancharis are found in its music. The swarupa is well brought out in each case. Fo each note of the Dhathu there is usually a syllable in the Sahitya. Sometimes meaningless phrases are found interspersed in it.

There are called Matrika Padas or Geethalankara phrases. These phrases lend a characteristic beauty to the sahitya of geethas. They are introduced for onramentation only. These syllables remind one of similar syllables occuring in samaganam. There are instances of famous Sanskrit slokas which have been cleverly introduced as sahityas for sanchari 5 geethas.


Music Theory

Origins, sources and history Saraswati , the Hindu goddess of all knowledge, music, arts and science, with her instrument, the veena. The Sama Veda , which is believed to have laid the foundation for Indian classical music, consists of hymns from the Rigveda , set to musical tunes which would be sung using three to seven musical notes during Vedic yajnas. It was at this time that Carnatic music flourished in Vijayanagara , while the Vijayanagar Empire reached its greatest extent. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Carnatic music was mainly patronised by the local kings of the Kingdom of Mysore , Kingdom of Travancore , and the Maratha rulers of Tanjore. During the late 19th century, the city of Chennai then known as Madras emerged as the locus for Carnatic music. Carnatic music itself developed around musical works or compositions of phenomenal composers see below. It is also used in the sense of graded pitches in an octave.


Carnatic music


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