The inscription CIJ 1. As noted by Father Antonio Ferrua, S. Yet a number of irregularities in the text are also immediately apparent. Bertinetti, Rome, , p.

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The inscription CIJ 1. As noted by Father Antonio Ferrua, S. Yet a number of irregularities in the text are also immediately apparent. Bertinetti, Rome, , p. In itself, however, this detail may be significant. Winkelmann is the only scholar to mention that the epitaph was found on an urn, a term also used to describe a container or sarcophagus.

But his Dissertatio does include a number of Jewish inscriptions on sarcophagi in private houses and churches, as well as in the museum organized by members of his own order, the Jesuits, in Rome. Concordantia e verborum, nominum et imaginum. Tituli graeci, Bari, , pp. Winkelmann, Ville e Palazzi di Roma, ed. Serra, Rome, , p.

Lupi is the only reliable source for the latter now missing. Recent studies on Jewish epigraphy have also re- examined CIJ 1. It lacks the epigraphic formula and images that were used in a significant number of the Jewish epitaphs from Rome. The Greek name!

It is published for the first time by Lupi, , pp. Wesseling, and later Kirkhoff, in CIG 4, p. Giardina, ed. Fraser and E. Felle, , nn. The front of this container is decorated with human and animal figures flanking a large rectangular tablet at center that contains the epitaph to!

Although an exceptional iconographic and epigraphic find, and still conserved within the Palazzo Rondinini or Rondanini in Rome, the sarcophagus has attracted little attention and study until very recently. Guarducci, Epigrafia Greca, 4, Rome, , p.

I am also indebted to Gregory DiPippo for a discussion of these terms. Moretti, Inscriptiones Graecae Urbis Romae, 2. The term is used more often by Jews than Christians, but is also found in a small number of inscriptions not identified as either Christian or Jewish. Migliore, in Cod. Paribeni and published as an appendix in L.

CIJ 1. Koch in Fruhhristliche Sarkophage, Munchen, , pp. Koch includes the piece in the chapter on Jewish sarcophagi, despite the problem of assigning a Jewish identity to the piece.

I am most grateful to Prof. Fabrizio Bisconti for calling my attention to this publication. On its part, the Rondinini collection once numbered over pieces, many acquired by the Marquis Giuseppe Rondinini during the second half of the eighteenth century. Yet there is too little evidence at present to connect these artifacts to the Jewish catacombs in the Vigna Randanini or Rondanini on the Appian Way, only identified as Jewish in Even then, however, some eighteenth century scholars, including Marini and Migliore, did not automatically attribute all the Jewish artifacts to one site.

The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum indicates, in fact, that much of the Rondanini collection was purchased from antiquarians including Jacopo Bellotti, a noted dealer in both real and fake antiquities and other family collections including that of the Giustiniani. For this reason, the pieces themselves 25 Belli Barsani, , p. In , it was again sold, this time to the Polish prince Stanislaus Poiniatowski. Principe Poiniatowski, Rome, The vineyard below which the Jewish catacomb had been found was not one of the known properties of the Rondinini family in the eighteenth century records suggest it was first rented by one Giuseppe Randanini just before the discovery of the Jewsh catacombs in Ferraiolj f.

Ferrua, , p. The sarcophagus of! The sarcophagus, marble grayish in tone, is roughly oval in shape, with rounded sides. It measures 1. That at left does have some rough indications, perhaps, of a rocky landscape, but the right side is pared down and smooth. There are no signs of restoration to the surface of the piece.

The front is decorated with several human and animal figures that flank a great rectangular tablet at center. The tablet measures 24 cm. The last two lines of text are added on the lower band of the cornice and the space between the tablet and bottom of the sarcophagus 4. To add these lines, the stonecutter carved back the bottom part of the cornice and base of the surrounding sculpted reliefs cropping feet, the ends of tunics, and other features.

The first six lines of text, with the exception of line 4, are inserted almost perfectly into the surface of the tablet, each measuring more or less 22 cm. The extra lines run to extremes, especially for the crowded line 7 on the cornice: 27 cm. The letters range from a minimum of 1. Ample space is left between the words in lines , with one triangular inter-punctuation in line 4 between -7 and 5. Raffaele Garrucci, S. J, attributes the inscription CIJ 1.

The decoration around the text is on a single band, dominated by four figures nearly as tall as the central panel. The carving technique used to render these figures is closer to that found on the lids of sarcophagi than the more finished and proportionately designed works of this type often imported to Rome.

A figure in a toga is seated on the top of this small mountain, reading an open scroll rotulus in his hands. The head is enormous the ears in particular , very disproportionate to the body, and accentuated by the long hair and deep groves around the head and upper back. The drapes of the toga are indicated with thin folds.

Directly in front, also facing the tablet at right is another long-haired figure, exhibiting similar youthful traits. Shown with his left foot on a small rock, the individual delivers a speech, gesturing with his hands.

The hands slightly overlap with the left side of the cornice at center. On the right side, also overlapping with the tablet, is another boyish figure, probably always the same individual, now pictured with his right arm wrapped in a mantle and grasping its folds over the left shoulder.

The body of the last figure is in a more frontal position, and has distinctly feminine traits. The deep groove encircling the head resembles the Oriental nimbus, a curious feature for a figure shown perched on the back of a peacock, with both hands outstretched in a gesture close to that of an orant. As funerary art, these scenes appear to form an extremely spiritual composition that still owes much to the Classical tradition although the technique of execution suggests a much later date.

Several theories immediately present themselves. Noy, , p. The title archon, although commonly used for Jewish individuals in Rome, was never in itself exclusive to Jews, and could refer to a leader of one of the many other communities in Rome at the time, including the Mithraic sect. Bibliography A. Lupi, Dissertatio ed animadversiones ad nuper inventum Severae Martyris epitaphium, Palermo, , p. Muratori, Novus Thesaurus veterum inscriptionum, 2, Milan, , p.

Corsini, Notae Graecorum, Appendix 2, Florence, Winkelmann, Ville e Palazzi di Roma: , ed. Piacentini, de siglis veterum graecorum, Rome, , p. Migliore, Cod. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum 3, ed. Kirchoff, Berlin, , p. XL, n. Felle, Inscriptiones Christianae Urbis Romae nova series: concordantiae verborum, nominum et imaginem: tituli graeci, Bari, Wilpert, Sarcofagi Cristiani 1, tav 3.

Sarno, Palazzo Rondanini, with a catalogue of the ancient marbles by E. Paribeni, Rome, , pp. Koch, Fruhchristliche Sarkophage, Munich, , p. Rutgers, Leuven, , pp. Bruto — C. Bertinetti, Rome, , pp. Alessandra Negroni for suggesting a possible connection between the title of archon and the cult of Mithras. Related Papers.


Corpus inscriptionum Judaicarum

TOI- S. Furthermore, the original does not include hyphens to indicate word-breaks. Why would it have been important for Theodotus to identify not only himself but his father and grandfather as well as archisynagogoi? As priests? What was the role of an archisynagogos? Was it limited to Israelite males? What is the evidence?


Corpus inscriptionum judaicarum / 1. Europe.



JMG’s Corpus Inscriptionum Judaicarum Graeciae Publication


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