Note that although these guidelines are defined in accordance to machine classification as noted below, these guides provide a standardized starting point for evaluation. Once the general classification of the machine has been identified, the application, mounting technique, and operational conditions must also be factored into the level of acceptance in applying the evaluation criteria. In application-specific installations, this guideline may be modified in accordance to application requirements. Per ISO Velocity measurements can be categorized as follows: Class I machines may be separated driver and driven, or coupled units comprising operating machinery up to approximately 15kW approx 20hp.
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ISO All rights reserved. ISO copyright office Case postale 56? CH Geneva 20 Tel. The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.
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Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition ISO The main change is the deletion of pumps from the scope, which now are dealt with in ISO ISO consists of the following parts, under the general title Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts:?
Part 1: General guidelines? Part 4: Gas turbine sets with fluid-film bearings? Part 5: Machine sets in hydraulic power generating and pumping plants? Part 6: Reciprocating machines with power ratings above kW? ISO — All rights reserved ISO E Introduction ISO is the basic document describing the general requirements for evaluating the vibration of various machine types when the vibration measurements are made on non-rotating parts. This part of ISO provides specific guidance for assessing the severity of vibration measured on bearings, bearing pedestals, or housings of industrial machines when measurements are made in situ.
Two criteria are provided for assessing the machine vibration. One criterion considers the magnitude of the observed vibration; the second considers the changes in the magnitude. It must be recognized, however, that these criteria do not form the only basis for judging the severity of vibration.
For some machine types, it is also common to judge the vibration based on measurements taken on the rotating shafts. Shaft vibration measurement requirements and criteria are addressed in separate documents, namely ISO  and ISO . The machine sets covered by this part of ISO include:? NOTE However, the vibration criteria presented in this part of ISO are generally only applicable to fans with power ratings greater than kW or fans which are not flexibly supported.
As and when circumstances permit, recommendations for other types of fans, including those with lightweight sheet metal construction, will be prepared. Until such time, classifications can be agreed between the manufacturer and the customer, using results of previous operational experience, see also ISO .
The following are excluded from this part of ISO ? The criteria of this part of ISO apply to in situ broad-band vibration measurements taken on the bearings, bearing pedestals, or housing of machines under steady-state operating conditions within the nominal operating speed range.
They relate to both acceptance testing and operational monitoring. The evaluation criteria of this part of ISO are designed to apply to both continuous and non-continuous monitoring situations.
This part of ISO encompasses machines which may have gears or rolling element bearings, but does not address the diagnostic evaluation of the condition of those gears or bearings. The criteria are applicable only for the vibration produced by the machine set itself and not for vibration which is transmitted to the machine set from external sources.
For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document including any amendments applies. ISO , Driving and driven machines — Shaft heights ISO , Mechanical vibration of rotating and reciprocating machinery — Requirements for instruments for measuring vibration severity ISO , Mechanical vibration — Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts — Part 1: General guidelines 3 Measurement procedures and operational conditions 3.
Depending on the vibration criteria, this may require measurements of displacement or velocity or combinations of these see ISO NOTE If the measurement equipment is also to be used for diagnostic purposes, an upper frequency limit higher than 1 Hz may be necessary. Particular attention should be given to ensure that the vibration transducers are correctly mounted and that such mountings do not degrade the accuracy of the measurements.
Care shall be taken to ensure that measurements reasonably represent the vibration of the bearing housing and do not include any local resonances or amplification. The locations and directions of vibration measurements shall be such that they provide adequate sensitivity to the machine dynamic forces.
Typically, this will require two orthogonal radial measurement locations on each bearing cap or pedestal, as shown in Figure 1 for horizontally mounted machines and Figure 2 for vertically mounted machines. The main purpose of this figure is to identify the measuring points for a vertical machine. The transducers may be placed at any angular position on the bearing housings or pedestals. Vertical and horizontal directions are usually preferred for horizontally mounted machines.
For vertical or inclined machines, the location that gives the maximum vibration reading, usually in the direction of the elastic axis, shall be one of those used.
In some cases it may be recommended to measure also in the axial direction see 5. The specific locations and directions shall be recorded with the measurement.
A single transducer may be used on a bearing cap or pedestal in place of the more typical pair of orthogonal transducers if it is known to provide adequate information on the magnitude of the machine vibration.
However, caution should be observed when evaluating vibration from a single transducer at a measurement plane since it may not be oriented to provide a reasonable approximation to the maximum value at that plane. For many machines, mainly those of small size or power, continuous monitoring of the vibration parameters is not necessarily carried out.
Changes in unbalance, bearing performance, alignment, etc. The use of computers for trend analysis and warning against malfunctions is also becoming more common. On machines with varying speeds or loads, measurements shall be made at all conditions at which the machine would be expected to operate for prolonged periods. The maximum measured value under these conditions shall be considered representative of vibration severity. NOTE In some cases the effect of background vibration may be nullified by spectrum analysis or by eliminating the offending external source.
Figure 1 — Measuring points for a horizontally mounted machine 4? Figure 2 — Measuring points for a vertically mounted machine 4 Machine classification 4. Machines of these two groups may have horizontal, vertical or inclined shafts and can be mounted on rigid or flexible supports. Group 1: Large machines with rated power above kW; electrical machines with shaft height H W mm. These machines normally have sleeve bearings. NOTE 1 The shaft height, H, of a machine is defined in accordance with ISO as the distance, measured on the machine ready for delivery, between the centreline of the shaft and the base plane of the machine itself see Figure 1.
NOTE 2 The shaft height of a machine without feet, or a machine with raised feet, or any vertical machine, is to be taken as the shaft height of a machine in the same basic frame, but of the horizontal shaft foot-mounting type. When the frame is unknown, half of the machine diameter should be used. These support conditions are determined by the relationship between the machine and foundation flexibilities.
All other support systems may be considered flexible. As typical examples, large and medium-sized electric motors, mainly with low speeds, would normally have rigid supports, whereas turbo-generators or compressors with power greater than 10 MW and vertical machine sets would usually have flexible supports.
In some cases, a support assembly may be rigid in one measuring direction and flexible in the other. For example, the lowest natural frequency in the vertical direction may be well above the main excitation frequency, while the horizontal natural frequency may be considerably less. Such a system would be stiff in the vertical plane but flexible in the horizontal. In such cases, the vibration should be evaluated in accordance with the support classification which corresponds to the measurement direction.
If the class of a machine-support system cannot be readily determined from drawings and calculation, it may be determined by testing. One criterion considers the magnitude of observed broad-band vibration; the second considers changes in magnitude, irrespective of whether they are increases or decreases.
The maximum vibration magnitude observed at each bearing or pedestal is assessed against the evaluation zones for the support class. The evaluation zones have been established from international experience.
Zone A: The vibration of newly commissioned machines normally falls within this zone. Zone B: Machines with vibration within this zone are normally considered acceptable for unrestricted longterm operation. Generally, the machine may be operated for a limited period in this condition until a suitable opportunity arises for remedial action.
Zone D: Vibration values within this zone are normally considered to be of sufficient severity to cause damage to the machine. Numerical values assigned to the zone boundaries are not intended to serve as acceptance specifications, which shall be subject to agreement between the machine manufacturer and the customer. However, these values provide guidelines for ensuring that gross deficiencies or unrealistic requirements are avoided.
In certain cases, there may be specific features associated with a particular machine which would require the use of different zone boundary values higher or lower. In such cases, it is normally necessary for the manufacturer to explain the reasons for this and, in particular, to confirm that the machine would not be endangered by operating with higher vibration values. Therefore when using these tables, the higher of each of the values measured from the two transducers in each measurement plane should be used.
When the maximum measured values of velocity and displacement are compared to the corresponding values in Table A. Such measurements are primarily used during periodic vibration surveys or for diagnostic purposes. Certain faults are more easily detected in the axial direction. Specific axial vibration criteria are at the moment only given in the case of thrust bearings where axial vibration correlates with axial pulsations which could cause damage to the axial load-carrying surfaces.
The criteria of Table A. A significant change in broad-band vibration magnitude may occur, which requires some action even though zone C of Criterion I has not been reached. Such changes can be instantaneous or progressive over time and may indicate incipient damage or some other irregularity. Criterion II is specified on the basis of the change in broad-band vibration magnitude occurring under steady-state operating conditions.
Steady-state operating conditions should be interpreted to include small changes in the machine power or operational conditions. When Criterion II is applied, the vibration measurements being compared shall be taken at the same transducer location and orientation, and under approximately the same machine operating conditions.
ISO 10816-1:1995/Amd 1:2009
DIN ISO 10816-1:1997-08