Thomas Aquinas and for his own Thomist philosophy. Reared a Protestant, Maritain attended the Sorbonne in Paris , where he was attracted by teachers who claimed that the natural sciences alone could resolve human questions about life and death. There, however, he also met Raissa Oumansoff, a Russian-Jewish student, who began to share his quest for truth. After studying biology at Heidelberg —08 Maritain studied Thomism at Paris and in began teaching at the Institut Catholique, serving as professor of modern philosophy — From he also taught annually at the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies in Toronto and was a visiting professor at Princeton —42 and Columbia — He returned as professor of philosophy at Princeton —60 after serving as French ambassador to the Vatican —
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Quotations are from the translation by Joseph W. Evans online here. Also, the earlier translation by J. Scanlan is online here. The alternative is to fall into the sterility of purely subjective or purely objective modes.
If it turns away from sense to abstract and reason, it turns away from its joy and loses contact with this radiance…. Thus music gives us enjoyment of being, more so perhaps than the other arts; but it does not give us knowledge of being, and it is absurd to make it a substitute for metaphysics.
The intuition of artistic beauty thus stands at the opposite extreme from the abstraction of scientific truth. For with the former it is through the very apprehension of the sense that the light of being penetrates the intelligence.
The intelligence in this case, diverted from all effort of abstraction, rejoices without work and without discourse. It is dispensed from its usual labor; it does not have to disengage an intelligible from the matter in which it is buried, in order to go over its different attributes step by step; like a stag at the gushing spring, intelligence has nothing to do but drink; it drinks the clarity of being.
Caught up in the intuition of sense, it is irradiated by an intelligible fight that is suddenly given to it, in the very sensible in which it glitters, and which it does not seize sub ratione veri, but rather sub ratione delectabilis, through the happy release procured for the intelligence and through the delight ensuing in the appetite, which leaps at every good of the soul as at its proper object.
Only afterwards will it be able to reflect more or less successfully upon the causes of this delight. Saint Thomas, who was as simple as he was wise, defined the beautiful as that which, being seen, pleases: id quod visum placet. These four words say all that is necessary: a vision, that is to say, an intuitive knowledge, and a delight. The beautiful is what gives delight — not just any delight, but delight in knowing; not the delight peculiar to the act of knowing, but a delight which superabounds and overflows from this act because of the object known.
The more substantial and the more profound this secret sense is, the more hidden it is for us; so that, in truth, to say with the Schoolmen that the form is in things the proper principle of intelligibility, is to say at the same time that it is the proper principle of mystery.
There is in fact no mystery where there is nothing to know: mystery exists where there is more to be known than is given to our comprehension. To define the beautiful by the radiance of the form is in reality to define it by the radiance of a mystery.
Forms ultimately have significance because they have been created by God. Beauty is essentially an object of intelligence, for that which knows in the full sense of the word is intelligence, which alone is open to the infinity of being. The natural place of beauty is the intelligible world, it is from there that it descends. Hence the three conditions Saint Thomas assigned to beauty: integrity, because the intellect is pleased in fullness of Being; proportion, because the intellect is pleased in order and unity; finally, and above all, radiance or clarity, because the intellect is pleased in light and intelligibility.
Beauty is the splendor of the form on the proportioned parts of matter, is to say that it is a flashing of intelligence on a matter intelligibly arranged. The intelligence delights in the beautiful because in the beautiful it finds itself again and recognizes itself, and makes contact with its own light.
This is so true that those — such as Saint Francis of Assisi — perceive and savor more the beauty of things, who know that things come forth from an intelligence, and who relate them to their author. Art, first of all, is of the intellectual order, its action consists in imprinting an idea in some matter: it is therefore in the intelligence of the artifex that it resides, or, as is said, this intelligence is the subject in which it inheres.
It is a certain quality of this intelligence. What is required is not that the representation exactly conform to a given reality, but that through the material elements of the beauty of the work there truly pass, sovereign and whole, the radiance of a form.
But if the delight in the beautiful work comes from a truth, it does not come from the truth of imitation as reproduction of things, it comes from the perfection with which the work expresses or manifests the form, in the metaphysical sense of this word, it comes from the truth of imitation as manifestation of a form.
Here we have the formal element of imitation in art: the expression or manifestation, in a work suitably proportioned, of some secret principle of intelligibility which shines forth. It is upon this that the joy of imitation bears in art. It is also what gives art its value of universality.
Compare, from this point of view, Gregorian melody or the music of Bach with the music of Wagner or Stravinsky. The human artist or poet, whose intellect is not the cause of things, as is the Divine Intellect, cannot draw this form entirely from his creative spirit: he goes and imbibes it first and above all in the immense treasure-house of created things, of sensible nature as also of the world of souls, and of the interior world of his own soul.
From this point of view he is first and foremost a man who sees more deeply than other men, and who discloses in the real spiritual radiances which others cannot discern.
Art is made by the physical hand of the artist, within a specific, tangible community, at a specific place and time. Also inspired David Jones community at Ditchling. But art does not reside in an angelic mind; it resides in a soul which animates a living body, and which, by the natural necessity in which it finds itself of learning, and progressing little by little and with the assistance of others, makes the rational animal a naturally social animal.
Art is therefore basically dependent upon everything which the human community, spiritual tradition and history transmit to the body and mind of man. By its human subject and its human roots, art belongs to a time and a country.
That is why the most universal and the most human works are those which bear most openly the mark of their country. That is why he who is deprived of spiritual delectations goes over to the carnal.
This work is everything for Art; there is for Art but one law — the exigencies and the good of the work. Hence the tyrannical and absorbing power of Art, and also its astonishing power of soothing; it delivers one from the human; it establishes the artifex — artist or artisan — in a world apart, closed, limited, absolute, in which he puts the energy and intelligence of his manhood at the service of a thing which he makes.
This is true of all art; the ennui of living and willing, ceases at the door of every workshop. But if art is not human in the end that it pursues, it is human, essentially human, in its mode of operating. The cathedral builders did not harbor any sort of thesis. They even thought a great deal less of making a beautiful work than of doing good work. They were men of Faith, and as they were, so they worked. Their work revealed the truth of God, but without doing it intentionally, and because of not doing it intentionally.
Not only is our act of artistic creation ordered to an ultimate end, true God or false God, but it is impossible that it not regard, because of the environment in which it steeps, certain proximate ends that concern the human order.
The workman works for his wages, and the most disincarnate artist has some concern to act on souls and to serve an idea, be it only an aesthetic idea. What is required is the perfect practical discrimination between the aim of the workman finis operantis, as the Schoolmen put it and the aim of the work finis operis : so that the workman should work for his wages, but the work should be ruled and shaped and brought into being only with regard to its own good and in nowise with regard to the wages.
Thus the artist may work for any and every human intention he likes, but the work taken in itself must be made and constructed only for its own beauty.
Jacques Maritain, Art and Scholasticism
Mereka kemudian menikah pada tahun Sang istri dikenal sebagai seorang penyair dan mistikus, berperan sebagai rekan intelektual Jacques dalam upayanya mencari kebenaran. Pada tahun , akibat kekecewaan tersebut, mereka membuat suatu perjanjian untuk melakukan bunuh diri bersama apabila dalam waktu satu tahun mereka tidak dapat menemukan makna yang lebih dalam dari kehidupan. Kritik Bergson seputar saintisme membuyarkan keputusasaan intelektual mereka dan menanamkan dalam diri mereka "pemahaman akan yang absolut". Teori neo-vitalisme yang dicetuskan Hans Driesch menarik perhatian Jacques karena keterkaitannya dengan Henri Bergson.
Quotations are from the translation by Joseph W. Evans online here. Also, the earlier translation by J. Scanlan is online here.
Later, he attended the Sorbonne , studying the natural sciences: chemistry, biology and physics. They married in A noted poet and mystic, she participated as his intellectual partner in his search for truth. In , in light of this disillusionment, they made a pact to commit suicide together if they could not discover some deeper meaning to life within a year. In Thomas, Maritain found a number of insights and ideas that he had believed all along. He wrote: Thenceforth, in affirming to myself, without chicanery or diminution, the authentic value of the reality of our human instruments of knowledge, I was already a Thomist without knowing it