Citation: HortTechnology hortte 26, 6; Exceptions were marketable yield and total yield at UPR-Adjuntas, and fruit soluble solids at La Balear, which did not show a significant cultivar effect. Table 1. Number of fruit, fruit yield, fruit cluster yield, individual fruit weight, and total soluble solids of six lychee cultivars planted at two locations in Puerto Rico. In general, cultivars exhibited an increase in the number of total fruit produced from field transplanting until at both locations Table 2.
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This may explain the limited information available about the health effects of the edible fruit species Melicoccus bijugatus, a member of the Sapindaceae family that grows mostly in the Caribbean and in parts of South America. However, recent phytochemical studies of these fruits have shed some light on their biological effects. In this review the health effects of M. The chemistry of M.
Specific phenolics or sugars in M. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of M. Introduction The edible fruit species Melicoccus bijugatus is a minor member of the Sapindaceae family, otherwise known as the Soapberry family [ 1 ]. Although most fruit trees are grown naturally from seed, some superior cultivars are propagated by air layering or grafting in Puerto Rico and in Florida [ 2 ]. Street vendors, often children, sell these fruits to tourists or locals seeking refreshments in the summer heat [ 2 , 3 ].
Unlike their Asian relatives, M. This may be because the fruits are mostly popular in native fruit regions where they have little monetary value.
Moreover, the physical characteristics of these fruits may contribute to their limited commercial success in the international market; the pulp is often difficult to separate from the seed and usually only small quantities of edible pulp are obtained after a labor-intensive effort.
Although insufficient financial incentives may explain the lack of research on the health effects of these fruits, there are several ethnomedicinal uses of M. Much of this information comes from northern South America, but more recent investigations provide information from the Caribbean islands. Information about the potential biological activities of M.
In order to better understand the health effects of this under-researched fruit species, this review provides information about the ethnobotany and phytochemistry of these fruits as well as chemotaxonomic and medicinal uses of other Sapindaceae fruits with more commercial value.
Ethnobotanical information 2. In Venezuela the roasted seeds are pulverized and mixed with honey and consumed as a syrup or tea to halt diarrhea [ 2 ]. The roasted embryo is also prepared and consumed similarly to chestnuts for dietary uses [ 2 ]. The indigenous people of the Orinoco region used the cooked seeds as a substitute for cassava, or ground it into a flour to make bread [ 5 ].
Usually the seeds are roasted before consumption for either dietary or medicinal purposes, most likely to reduce the toxicity of the seeds or make them more digestible. The juice from the pulp of the fruit is usually sucked until all that remains is the fibrous material attached to the seed. Pie filling, jam marmalade or jelly is made from the pulp [ 2 ]. The peeled fruits are also boiled to make juice for cold drinks and the fruit juice has been used as an experimental dye [ 2 ].
The fruit pulp is also used for the treatment of hypertension, asthma, diarrhea and constipation [ 7 — 9 ]. Additional ethnobotanical information, acquired from interviews of people from the Dominican Republic and Cuba, indicated that M. The fruit pulp was also reported to be an irritant to the throat when consumed in large quantities. However, macerating the seeds with the teeth and then sucking the seed juice was reported to alleviate this condition [ 3 ].
Ethnobotanical comparisons with related species M. Rambutan , Dimocarpus longan Lour. Longan and Litchi chinensis Sonn. Litchi [ 2 ]. The seeds of both M. The pulp from M. Specifically, the pulp of M. Furthermore, the pulp of L. Both M. Based on the ethnobotanical literature, it does not appear that M. It is also worth noting that the seeds of D. This is probably due to the detergent-like properties of saponins in these tissues, which are common in the Sapindaceae family [ 4 ].
Similar saponins may also be responsible for the piscicidal fish poison properties of the closely related species Talisia squarrosa, a member of same tribe as M. Although there are no reports of using M. In the embryo part of the seed tissues mostly flavonoids were identified including epicatechin, catechin, epigallocatechin, B-type procyanidins dimers , naringenin, naringenin derivatives, phloretin, phloridzin, quercetin, myricetin and resveratrol [ 11 ].
The hydroxycinnamic acid, sinapic acid, was also identified [ 11 ].
Yield Performance of Six Lychee Cultivars Grown at Two Locations in Puerto Rico
This may explain the limited information available about the health effects of the edible fruit species Melicoccus bijugatus, a member of the Sapindaceae family that grows mostly in the Caribbean and in parts of South America. However, recent phytochemical studies of these fruits have shed some light on their biological effects. In this review the health effects of M. The chemistry of M. Specific phenolics or sugars in M.
Litchi and longan: botany, production and uses.
There are three flower types, distributed throughout the panicle;  staminate functionally male , pistillate functionally female , and hermaphroditic flowers. The peel is tan, thin, and leathery with tiny hairs. Longan trees prefer sandy soil. While the species prefers temperatures that do not typically fall below 4. The wild longan population have been decimated considerably by large-scale logging in the past, and the species used to be listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
LITCHI AND LONGAN BOTANY PRODUCTION AND USES PDF
China is the main producer followed by India. The lychee has a history and cultivation going back as far as BC according to records in China. Cultivation began in southern China, Malaysia, and Vietnam. Wild trees still grow in parts of southern China and on Hainan Island.
Litchi and Longan
Vishicage Commodities and Products see more details ltichi, lychees lychees Subject Category: Geographic Entities see more detailsAmerica america Subject Category: You can choose to delete your My CABI account from your profile page, in which case, all your information will be deleted from our servers. Organism Names see more detailsDimocarpus longan subsp. No eBook available Amazon. CABI is a member of: Dimocarpus longan dimocarpus longan Subject Category: Organism Names see more detailsSapindales sapindales Subject Category: Natural Processes see more details and fruit set fruit set Subject Category: This is why it needs to be replenished uess the dietary sources. Geographic Entities see more detailsFlorida florida Subject Category: Techniques, Methodologies and Equipment see more detailsstorage quality storage quality Subject Category: Fruit set, development and maturation, 9: This is to ensure that we licthi you the best experience possible. Geographic Entities see more detailsAfrica africa Subject Category: Please sign in to access your subscribed products. It covers all aspects of production, from taxonomy taxonomy Subject Category: Plant water relations and irrigation, C M Menzel Disciplines, Occupations and Industries see more detailscrop quality crop quality Subject Category: It also contains information on photosynthesis, productivity, plant-water relations and nutrition.