A BATALHA DE KADESH PDF

The Egyptians showed flagging interest here until almost the end of the dynasty. Inscriptions on the Karnak walls record the details of his campaigns into Canaan and ancient Syria. He made an informal peace with the Hittites, took control of coastal areas along the Mediterranean Sea and continued to campaign in Canaan. A second campaign led to his capture of Kadesh where a stela commemorated his victory and Amurru kingdom. His son and heir Ramesses II campaigned with him. There are historical records that record a large weapons order by Ramesses II in the year before the expedition he led to Kadesh in his fifth regnal year.

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The Egyptians showed flagging interest here until almost the end of the dynasty. Inscriptions on the Karnak walls record the details of his campaigns into Canaan and ancient Syria. He made an informal peace with the Hittites, took control of coastal areas along the Mediterranean Sea and continued to campaign in Canaan.

A second campaign led to his capture of Kadesh where a stela commemorated his victory and Amurru kingdom. His son and heir Ramesses II campaigned with him. There are historical records that record a large weapons order by Ramesses II in the year before the expedition he led to Kadesh in his fifth regnal year.

What exactly happened to Amurru is disputed. Hittitologist Trevor R. Bryce suggests that, although it may have fallen once again under Hittite control, it is more likely Amurru remained a Hittite vassal state.

The army moved beyond the fortress of Tjel and along the coast leading to Gaza. Also significant was the presence of Sherden troops within the Egyptian army. This is the first time they appear as Egyptian mercenaries, and they would play an increasingly significant role in Late Bronze Age history, ultimately appearing among the Sea Peoples that ravaged the east Mediterranean at the end of the Bronze Age.

This list is of considerable interest to Hittitologists, as it reflects the extent of Hittite influence at the time. Muwatalli had positioned his troops behind "Old Kadesh", but Ramesses, misled by two spies whom the Egyptians had captured, thought the Hittite forces were still far off, at Aleppo, [17] and ordered his forces to set up camp. His infantry went on the narrow passes as if on the highways of Egypt.

Now after days had passed after this, then his majesty was in Ramses Meri-Amon, the town which is in the Valley of the Cedar. His majesty proceeded northward. After his majesty reached the mountain range of Kadesh, then his majesty went forward His majesty reached the town of Kadesh The division of Amon was on the march behind him; the division of Re was crossing the ford in a district south of the town of Shabtuna at the distance of one iter from the place where his majesty was; the division of Ptah was on the south of the town of Arnaim; the division of Set was marching on the road.

His majesty had formed the first ranks of battle of all the leaders of his army, while they were [still] on the shore in the land of Amurru. The lord proceeded northward, and his majesty arrived at a vicinity south of the town of Shabtuna.

As Ramesses and the Egyptian advance guard were about 11 kilometers from Kadesh, south of Shabtuna, he met two Shasu nomads who told him that the Hittite king was "in the land of Aleppo, on the north of Tunip " kilometers away, where, the Shasu said, he was " too much afraid of Pharaoh, L. The prisoners revealed that the entire Hittite army and the Hittite king were actually close at hand: When they had been brought before Pharaoh, His Majesty asked, "Who are you?

He has sent us to spy on you. I had heard that he was in the land of Aleppo. They are armed with their infantry and their chariots.

They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach. Behold, they stand equipped and ready for battle behind the old city of Kadesh. After this, Ramesses II called his princes to meet with him and discuss the fault of his governors and officials in not informing the position of Muwatalli II and his army.

As Ramesses was alone with his bodyguard and the Amun division, the vizier was ordered to hasten the arrival of the Ptah and Seth divisions, with the Re division having almost arrived at the camp. The Re division was caught in the open and scattered in all directions. Some fled northward to the Amun camp, all the while being pursued by Hittite chariots.

The Hittite chariotry then rounded north and attacked the Egyptian camp, crashing through the Amun shield wall and creating panic among the Amun division. However, the momentum of the Hittite attack was already starting to wane, as the impending obstacles of such a large camp forced many Hittite charioteers to slow their attack; some were killed in chariot crashes.

I found the mass of chariots in whose midst I was, scattering them before my horses[. Ramesses personally led several charges into the Hittite ranks together with his personal guard, some of the chariots from his Amun division and survivors from the routed division of Re.

Although he had suffered a significant reversal, Muwatalli II still commanded a large force of reserve chariotry and infantry, plus the walls of the town. As the retreat reached the river, he ordered another thousand chariots to attack the Egyptians, the stiffening element consisting of the high nobles who surrounded the king.

Finally, the Ptah division arrived from the south, threatening the Hittite rear.

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