Oorsprong[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] Het concept stamt van de situationisten , die het wilden inzetten om vastgeroeste denk- en handelingspatronen van voorgaande generaties te veranderen. De beweging der situationisten stamde uit de jaren vijftig en zette de middelen in die in een consumptiemaatschappij doeltreffend zouden moeten zijn. Op dat gevoel speelden de happenings in. Concreet was het Allan Kaprow die de term lanceerde op een bijeenkomst over kunst op de boerderij van George Segal in de lente van In de winter van verscheen de term in druk in een Amerikaans universitair tijdschrift waarin aanhangers van de destijds invloedrijke kunstenaarsbeweging Fluxus regelmatig publiceerden.
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These "Happenings" represent what we now call New Media Art. It is participatory and interactive , with the goal of tearing down the wall a. One such work, titled Eighteen Happenings in Six Parts, involved an audience moving together to experience elements such as a band playing toy instruments, a woman squeezing an orange, and painters painting.
He gained significant attention in September for his Words performance at the Smolin Gallery. However, the ritualistic nature of his happenings is nowhere better illustrated than in Eat , which took place in a cave with irregular floors criss-crossed with puddles and streams. Girls offered red and white wine to each visitor. Apples and bunches of bananas dangled from the ceiling and a girl fried banana fritters on a hotplate. In a small cave, entered only by climbing a ladder, a performer cut, salted and distributed boiled potatoes.
In a log hut, bread and jam were served. Bread was stuffed between the logs. The visitors could eat and drink at random for an hour. There was no dialogue other than that used in the interaction of the visitors with the performers. In his own words, "And the work itself, the action, the kind of participation, was as remote from anything artistic as the site was.
Using five video cameras and monitors, he recorded people riding the ski lift and again as they watched themselves riding the ski lift on the monitors. Through Happenings, the separation between life, art, artist, and audience becomes blurred.
The "Happening" allows the artist to experiment with body motion, recorded sounds, written and spoken texts, and even smells. One of his earliest "Happenings" was the "Happenings in the New York Scene," written in as the form was developing.
Kaprow calls them unconventional theater pieces, even if they are rejected by "devotees" of theater because of their visual arts origins. These "Happenings" use disposable elements like cardboard or cans making it cheaper on Kaprow to be able to change up his art piece every time.
The minute those elements break down, he can get more disposable materials together and produce another improvisational master piece.
He points out that their presentations in lofts, stores, and basements widens the concept of theater by destroying the barrier between audience and play and "demonstrating the organic connection between art and its environment. Sitting down here and there. Pix left on the spot. Going on".
The term was coined by Allan Kaprow, an artist and lecturer who had studied painting with one of the key exponents of Abstract Expressionism , Hans Hofmann , in the s. Unlike the influential critic Clement Greenberg, Kaprow was less interested in the art object than in the way they were created: he was excited by the performative possibilities of painting. He suggested that the art to come was one that incorporated everyday life, and everyday objects. In Kaprow went on a mushroom hunt with artists, composers and founder members of the Fluxus group George Brecht and John Cage.
Survival Research Laboratories Performance in L. Jack Kerouac referred to Kaprow as "The Happenings man", and an ad showing a woman floating in outer space declared, "I dreamt I was in a happening in my Maidenform brassiere". In New York City especially, "Happenings" became quite popular even though many had neither seen nor experienced them. In his Water, Robert Whitman had the performers drench each other with coloured water. Unlike other forms of art, Happenings that allow chance to enter are ever-changing.