ASTM D1946 PDF

Gardajar Organized by Hamburg-based IT and consulting company Astmm, the all-day meeting was attended by a total of 14 companies from the refinery, tank terminal, trade, service station, software and consulting sectors. This year global manufacturer and supplier of portable and fixed gas analysers, Geotech, will be exhibiting at the show, and will be found at stand E Geotech to showcase new analyser at UK Jul. German petroleum industry discusses modern data exchange Sep. The information about the chemical composition can be used to calculate physical properties of the gas, such as heating calorific value and relative density. Utilities providing customers access to their electricity, natural gas, or water data by utilizing the Green Button standard are now able to assure their programs are Green Button standards-compliant and meet goals for Peak Scientific, the global leader in gas generation for analytical laboratories, has today introduced a new nitrogen gas solution to the market, Genius SQ He was seeking a gas sensor with a rapid response, low lag, and low noise output.

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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Referenced Documents2. Summary of Practice3. The composition of the re-formed gas is calculated by comparison of either the peakheight or area response of each component with the corre-sponding value of that component in the reference standard. Significance and Use4. Combustioncharacteristics, products of combustion, toxicity, and inter-changeability with other fuel gases may also be inferred fromthe chemical composition. The thermalconductivity detector must be sufficiently sensitive to producea signal of at least 0.

It is highly desirable to evaluate the performanceof strip chart recorders or electronic integrators5. Thewidth of the chart shall be not less than mm. The attenuator must be accurate to within 0. The preferred material of construc-tion is stainless steel. Copper and copper-bearing alloys areunacceptable.

Current edition approved Nov. Published December Originallyapproved in Last previous edition approved in as D — 90 DOI: United States1runs of the same sample agree within the limits of repeatabilityfor the concentration range as specified in The pressure-sensing device mustbe accurate to 0. The oven temperature shall notexceed the recommended temperature limit for the materials inthe column. The detector temperature shall be equal to, orgreater than, the maximum column temperature.

The purity of the carrier gas may be improved byflowing the carrier gas through selective filters before its entryinto the chromatograph. Refer to 5. The preferred material of construction is stainlesssteel. Copper and copper-bearing alloys are unacceptable.

If a recorder is used, the recorder pen must return tothe baseline between each successive peak. Equivalent proof ofseparation is required for displays other than by chart recorder. Either argon ornitrogen carrier gas is suitable for both percent and parts permillion quantities of hydrogen. If a recorder is used, therecorder pen must return to the baseline between each succes-sive peak.

Equivalent proof of separation is required fordisplays other than by chart recorder. Reference Standards6. They must containknown percentages of the components, except oxygen Note2 , that are to be determined in the unknown sample.

Allcomponents in the reference standard must be homogeneous inthe vapor state at the time of use. The composition ofthe reference standard must be known to within 0. NOTE 2—Unless the reference standard is stored in a container that hasbeen tested and proved for inertness to oxygen, it is preferable to calibrateColumn: 1. Diluted dry air is a suitablestandard for oxygen and nitrogen. This pressure need not be measuredprecisely, as the fraction of nitrogen in the mixture such prepared must bedetermined by comparison to nitrogen in the reference standard.

Thefraction of nitrogen is multiplied by 0. Argon elutes with oxygen in the molecular sieves column. Donot rely on oxygen standards that have been prepared for more than a fewdays.

It is permissible to use a response factor for oxygen that is relativeto a stable component. Preparation of Apparatus7. Shape the columns to fit the configuration of the ovenin the chromatograph. NOTE 4—Variations in column material, dimensions, and mesh sizes ofpacking are permissible if the columns produce separations equivalent tothose shown in Fig.

Better performance may be obtained byusing a 2. Whenappropriate, column temperatures may be increased. Adjust theoperating conditions and allow the instrument to stabilize. Check the stability by making repeat runs on the referencestandard to obtain reproducible peak heights as described in5. Sufficient accuracy can be obtained for the determi-nation of all but the very minor components with this samplesize.

When increased sensitivity is required for the determina-tion of components present in low concentrations, a samplesize of up to 5 mLis permissible. Introduce a sample of the unknownmixture at atmospheric pressure into the chromatograph andobtain a response similar to that of Fig. Repeat with a sample of the referencestandard.

If oxygen is present in the mixture, run a sample ofair, either at an accurately measured reduced pressure, or airfreshly diluted with helium, so that the partial pressure ofoxygen is approximately equal to that of the oxygen in themixture being analyzed.

NOTE 5—The peak for carbon monoxide can appear between those ofnitrogen and methane if the molecular sieves have become contaminated. If this occurs, replace or regenerate the column packing by heating inaccordance with 7.

Introduce a sample of the reference standard and thena sample of the unknown mixture. Obtain responses similar tothat shown in Fig. The expressed numericalvalue of any component in the sample should not be presumedto be more accurate than the corresponding certified value ofthat component in the calibration standard.

Calculate the fraction of nitrogen in the mixture inaccordance with 9. Air composition values of

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