We can put the capitalists and feudalists on one side, and the farmers and workers on the other. Be the first to review this item Would you like to tell us about a lower price? And we shall regret this imitation. Money, and the wealth it represents, is the result and not the basis of development.
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Transcribed by: Ayanda Madyibi. The Declaration was discussed and then published in Swahili. This revised English Translation clarifies ambiguities which existed in the translation originally issued. It does not have two classes of people, a lower class composed of people who work for their living, and an upper class of people who live on the work of others.
In a really socialist country no person exploits another; everyone who is physically able to work does so; every worker obtains a just return for the labour he performs; and the incomes derived from different types of work are not grossly divergent. In a socialist country, the only people who live on the work of others, and who have the right to be dependent upon their fellows, are small children, people who are too old to support themselves, the crippled, and those whom the state at any one time cannot provide with an opportunity to work for their living.
Tanzania is a nation of peasants but is not yet a socialist society. It still contains elements of feudalism and capitalism--with their temptations. These feudalistic and capitalistic features of our society could spread and entrench themselves. To Build and maintain socialism it is essential that all the major means of production and exchange in the nation are controlled and owned by the peasants through the machinery of their Government and their co-operatives.
Further, it is essential that the ruling Party should be a Party of peasants and workers. The major means of production and exchange are such things as: land; forests; minerals;water; oil and electricity; news media; communications; banks, insurance, import ;and export trade, wholesale trade ; iron and steel, machine tool, arms, motor-car, cement, fertilizer, and textile industries; and any big factory on which a large section of the people depend for their living, or which provides essential components of other industries; large plantations, and especially those which provide raw materials essential to important industries.
If a country to be socialist, it is essential that its government is chosen and led by the peasants and workers themsclvcs. If the minority governments of Rhodesia or South Africa controlled or owned the entire economies of these respective countries, the result would be a strengthening of oppression, not the building of socialism.
True socialism cannot exist without democracy also existing in the society. A socialist society can only be built by those who believe in, and who themselves practice, the principles of socialism.
A committed member of TANU will be a socialist, and his fellow socialist — that is, his fellow believers in this political and economic system — are all those in Africa or elsewhere in the world who fight for the rights of peasants and workers. The first duty of a TANU member, and especially of a TANU leader, is to accept these socialist principles, and to live his own life in accordance with them.
In particular, a genuine TANU leader will not live off the sweat of another man, nor commit any feudalistic or capitalistic actions. The successful implementation of. We have been oppressed a great deal, we have been exploited a great deal and we have been disregarded a great deal.
It is our weakness that has led to our being oppressed, exploited and disregarded. Now we want a revolution — a revolution which brings an end to our weakness, so that we are never again exploited, oppressed, or humiliated. A Poor Man does not use Money as a Weapon But it is obvious that in the past we have chosen the wrong weapon for our struggle, because we chose money as our weapon. We are trying to overcome our economic weakness by using the weapons or the economically strong — weapons which in fact we do not possess.
By our thoughts, words and actions it appears as if we have come to the conclusion that without money we cannot bring about the revolution we are aiming at. Without money there can be no development. TANU leaders, and Government leaders and officials, all put great emphasis and dependence on money. In brief, our Five-Year Development Plan aims at more food, more education, and better health; but the weapon we have put emphasis upon is money.
We think and speak as if the most important thing to depend upon is MONEY and anything else we intend to use in our struggle is of minor importance. When a member of Parliament says that there is a shortage of water in his constituency ; and he asks the Government how it intends to deal with the problem, he expects the Government to reply that it is planning to remove the shortage of water in his constituency — with MONEY.
When another Member of Parliament asks what the Government is doing about the shortage of roads, schools or hospitals in his constituency, he also expects the Government to tell him that it has specific plans to build roads, schools and hospitals in his constituency — with MONEY.
Each year, each Ministry of Government makes its estimates of expenditure, i. Only one Minister and his Ministry make estimates of revenue.
This is the Minister for Finance. Every Ministry puts forward very good development plans. When the Ministry presents its estimates, it believes that the money is there for the asking but that the Minister for Finance are being obstructive. And regularly each year the Minister of Finance has to tell his fellow Ministers that there is no money.
And each year the Ministers complain about the Ministry of Finance when it trims down their estimates. Similarly, when Members of Parliament and other leaders demand that the Government should carry out a certain development, they believe that there is a lot of money to spend on such projects, but that the Government is the stumbling block.
Yet such belief on the part of Ministries, Members of Parliament and other leaders does not alter the stark truth, which is that Government has no money. When it is said that Government has no money, what does this mean? It means that the people of Tanzania have insufficient money The people pay taxes out of the very little wealth they have; it is from these taxes that the Government meets its recurrent and development expenditure.
When we call on the Government to spend more money on development projects, we are asking the Government to use more money. If one calls on the Government to spend more, one is in effect calling on the Government to increase taxes. Calling on the Government to spend more without raising taxes is like demanding that the Government should perform miracles; it is equivalent to asking for more milk from a cow while insisting that the cow should not be milked again. But our refusal to admit the calling on the Government to spend more is the same as calling on the Government to raise taxes shows that we fully realize the difficulties of increasing taxes.
We realize that the cow has no more milk — that is, that the people find it difficult to pay more taxes. We know that the cow would like to have more milk herself, so that her calves could drink it, or that she would like more milk which could be sold to provide more comfort for herself or her calves.
But knowing all the things which could be done with more milk does not alter the fact that the cow has no more milk! One method we use to try and avoid a recognition of the need to increase taxes if we want to have more money for development, is to think in terms of getting the extra money from outside Tanzania.
Such external finance falls into three main categories. Sometimes it may be that an institution in another country gives our Government, or an institution in our country, financial help for development programmes.
A foreign government or a foreign institution, such as a bank, lends our Government money for the purposes of development. Such a loan has repayment conditions attached to it, covering such factors as the time period for which it is available and the rate of interest. This takes the form of investment in our country by individuals or companies from outside. The important condition which such private investors have in mind is that the enterprise into which they put their money should bring them profit and that our Government should permit them to repatriate these profits.
They also prefer to invest in a country whose policies they agree with and which will safeguard their economic interests. These three are the main categories of external finance. And there is in Tanzania a fantastic amount of talk about getting money from outside.
Our Government, and different groups of our leaders, never stop thinking about methods of getting finance from abroad. And if we get some money or even if we just get a promise of it, our newspapers, our radio, and our leaders, all advertise the fact in order that every person shall know that salvation is coming, or is on the way.
If we receive a girt we announce it, if we receive a loan we announce it, if we get a new factory we announce it — and always loudly. In the same way, when we get a promise of a gift, a loan, or a new industry, we make an announcement of the promise. Even when we have merely started discussions with a foreign government or institution for a gift, a loan, or a new industry, we make an announcement — even though we do not know the outcome of the discussions. Why do we do all this? Because we want people to know that we have started discussions which will bring prosperity.
It is equally stupid, indeed it is even more stupid, for us to imagine that we shall rid ourselves of our poverty through foreign financial assistance rather than our own financial resources. It is stupid for two reasons. Firstly, we shall not get the money. It is true that there are countries which can, and which would like to, help us. But there is no country in the world which is prepared to give us gifts or loans, or establish industries, to the extent that we would be able to achieve all our development targets.
There are many needy countries in the world. And even if all the prosperous nations were willing to help the needy countries, the assistance would still not suffice. But in any case the prosperous nations have not accepted a responsibility to fight world poverty. Even within their own borders poverty still exists, and the rich individuals do not willingly give money to the government to help their poor fellow citizens.
It is only through taxation, which people have to pay whether they want to or not, that money can be extracted from the rich in order to help the masses. Even then there would not be enough money. However heavily we taxed the citizens of Tanzania and the aliens living here, the resulting revenue would not be enough to meet the costs of the development we want.
And there is no World Government which can tax the prosperous nations in order to help the poor nations; nor if one did exist could it raise enough revenue to do all that is needed in the world. But in fact, such a World Government does not exist. Such money as the rich nations offer to the poor nations is given voluntarily, either through their own goodness, or for their own benefit.
All this means that it is impossible for Tanzania to obtain from overseas enough money to develop our economy. Independence means self-reliance. Independence cannot be real if a nation depends upon gifts and loans from another for Its development. Even if there was a nation, or nations, prepared to give us all the money we need for our development, it would be improper for us to accept such assistance without asking ourselves how this would effect our independence and our very survival as a nation.
Gifts which increase, or act as a catalyst, to our own efforts are valuable. Gifts which could have the effect of weakening or distorting our own efforts should not be accepted until we have asked ourselves a number of questions. The same applies to loans. A loan is intended to increase our efforts or make those fruitful. One condition of a loan is that you show how you are going to repay it.
This means you have to show that you intend to use the loan profitably and will therefore be able to repay it. But even loans have their limitations. You have to give consideration to the ability to repay. When we borrow money from other countries it is the Tanzanian who pays it back. To burden the people with big loans, the repayment of which will be beyond their means, is not to help them but to make them suffer. It is even worse when the loans they are asked to repay have not benefited the majority of the people but have only benefited a small minority.
How about the enterprises of foreign investors? It is true we need these enterprises.
The Arusha Declaration
Azimio la Arusha