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At the same time, Bach transcribed earlier music, "cutting his coat to suit his cloth" or "making old wine in new bottles. John and St. Finally, Bach compiled three sonatas for gamba and harpsichord, BWV , late in Leipzig before Meanwhile, the trio sonata "was upheld as an ideal of compositional technique, offering a perfect synthesis of linear counterpoint, resonant harmony, and cantabile melody," says Peter Wollny.

Matthew Passion. Bach knew the Leipzig instrument maker J. Hoffmann, says Prinz Ibid. The three viola da gamba sonatas contain materials based on earlier works with BWV as a transcription of BWV , from before c.

Jones,7 or may have had an earlier origin in a double concerto, says Kenyon in a recent article. Gamba Sonatas BWV "Despite their uniformity of compositional form, each of the three sonatas has a profile of its own," says Wollny Ibid. The harpsichord dominates all three as Bach and sons display their keyboard virtuosity, with the gamba showing "comparatively little opportunity to display its technique," says early Bach scholar Charles Sanford Terry.

Meanwhile, "their interest is in the music rather than their instrumental technique," says Terry Ibid. The first and second sonatas are in four movements of sonata da chiesa form slow-fast-slow-fast, while the third is in three-movement concerto form fast, slow-fast.

The only accessible autograph of the three is the Sonata No. It dates to c. The St. Cantata has the aria No. The first gamba sonata is in a distinct, different concertante style from the other two, with opening Adagio in triple time having "pastoral quality," observes Hans Vogt,11 and is quite idiomatically written for the gamba. The Allegro ma non tanto in fugal style is a lively dialogue between the two instruments, while in the Andante the two instruments imitate each other.

The closing Allegro is mono-thematic and has "no discernable three-part organization," says Vogt Ibid. The short, introductory, canon-like Adagio in older style is followed by the modern element in the Allegro, a non-fugal dance movement in binary form with melodic syncopation.

The Andante No. The "concerto form has had a very important share in the construction of the [opening and closing] allegros," says Spitta. The opening Vivace has an "irresistible swing which keeps up the movement and action by new and unexpected impulses," he says.

A "lovely adagio in B flat major time satisfies our desire for melody with a devotional strain. In "the last allegro there seems to be an inexhaustible fund of the loveliest melodies," says Spitta Ibid. Conclusions The sons of Bach inherited some of his autographs of the chamber music and some manuscripts found their way to Forkel through Emanuel and Friedemann.

Given the quality of the works considered in this section [Instrumental Chamber and Ensemble Music], and the fact that they have in general received less attention than, say, the vocal and keyboard works, the scope is enormous. Bach, ed. Hans T. David and Arthur Mendel, rev. Norton, Clara Bell and J. Robin A. Leaver London: Routedge,


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