ECLIPSE OF REASON MAX HORKHEIMER PDF

Shelves: leftwing-theory , wurstchen A quiet little text, but probably one of the more significant foundational documents of the Frankfurt School, here by the most frankfurty of the bunch. Marcuse, Fromm, and Adorno are all more famous, but this guy captures the Frankfurt principle best, I think. Five essays. First is an argument regarding subjective and objective reason. The former is the force that ultimately makes reasonable actions possible, the faculty of classification, inference, and deduction, no matter what the specific A quiet little text, but probably one of the more significant foundational documents of the Frankfurt School, here by the most frankfurty of the bunch. This form of reason does not concern itself with analysis of the content or ends, but rather assumes that the ends are for the benefit of actor of the means.

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Shelves: leftwing-theory , wurstchen A quiet little text, but probably one of the more significant foundational documents of the Frankfurt School, here by the most frankfurty of the bunch. Marcuse, Fromm, and Adorno are all more famous, but this guy captures the Frankfurt principle best, I think.

Five essays. First is an argument regarding subjective and objective reason. The former is the force that ultimately makes reasonable actions possible, the faculty of classification, inference, and deduction, no matter what the specific A quiet little text, but probably one of the more significant foundational documents of the Frankfurt School, here by the most frankfurty of the bunch. This form of reason does not concern itself with analysis of the content or ends, but rather assumes that the ends are for the benefit of actor of the means.

We might consider this to be substantive rationality, perhaps. The task of this essay is to lay out that process, wherein reason is subjectivized and formalized.

Process starts with classical Athens, goes through Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment--good stuff, standard Frankfurt long view. To readers of Dialectic of Enlightenment , the trajectory should be very familiar here. And if the foundations of objective reason erode? Dialectic of Enlightenment Other essays are interesting, but not nearly as tidy; they include critiques of positivism, pragmatism, Thomism, scientism.

Neumann], because it feared that ever-increasing disillusionment [cf. The real individuals of our time are the martyrs [! Recommended for those who would attack general concepts, including the concept of the general concept, readers who express resistance to the threatening relapse into mythology and madness, and consummate supermen, against whom no one has warned more anxiously than Nietzsche himself.

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Max Horkheimer

In this, he responded critically to what he saw as the one-sidedness of both neo-Kantianism with its focus on concepts and Lebensphilosophie with its focus on expression and world-disclosure. Horkheimer did not think either was wrong, but insisted that the insights of each school on their own could not adequately contribute to the repair of social problems. This critical theory embraced the future possibilities of society and was preoccupied with forces which moved society toward rational institutions that would ensure a true, free, and just life. Horkheimer sought to enable the working class to reclaim their power in order to resist the lure of fascism. Horkheimer stated himself that "the rationally organized society that regulates its own existence" was necessary along with a society that could "satisfy common needs".

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Eclipse Of Reason

In deze, reageerde hij kritisch naar wat hij zag als de eenzijdigheid van zowel neokantianisme met de focus op concepten en Lebensphilosophie met de focus op expressie en wereld-disclosure. Horkheimer dacht niet dat niet juist was, maar stond erop dat de inzichten van elke school op hun eigen kon niet voldoende bijdragen aan het herstel van sociale problemen. De kritische theorie Door middel van de kritische theorie een sociale theorie gericht op bekritiseren en veranderende samenleving , Horkheimer "geprobeerd om radicale sociale en culturele kritiek revitaliseren" en besproken autoritarisme, militarisme, ontwrichting van de economie, milieu-crisis en de armoede van de massacultuur. Horkheimer ontwikkelde zijn kritische theorie van de behandeling van zijn eigen rijkdom, terwijl getuige van de juxtapositie van de burgerlijke en de verarmde.

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Eclipse of Reason

He writes with the perfect combination of exceptional erudition and a burning passion that would make Nietzsche proud. The Eclipse of Reason is an unrelenting assault on the various disciplines that fall prey to what Horkheimer describes as subjective reason. Horkheimer believes that virtually every element of society is suffering from the glorification of subjective reason as the only reason, which leads, he believes, to the inevitable descent into relativism, which in turn undermines the meanings of every action, and drags society kicking and screaming into a nihilistic abyss. We placed our faith in science, and science repaid us in kind with the most ruthlessly effective means of wholesale destruction of human life ever imagined.

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Max Horkheimer – Eclipse of Reason

Summary[ edit ] Horkheimer deals with the concept of reason within the history of western philosophy. He details the difference between objective , subjective and instrumental reason, and states that we have moved from the former through the center and into the latter though subjective and instrumental reason are closely connected. Objective reason deals with universal truths that dictate that an action is either right or wrong. It is a concrete concept, and a force in the world that requires specific modes of behavior. The focus in the objective faculty of reason is on the ends, rather than the means. Subjective reason is an abstract concept of reason, and focuses primarily on means. Specifically, the reasonable nature of the purpose of action is irrelevant - the ends only serve the purpose of the subject generally self-advancement or preservation.

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