Faur In sum, a number of electrophysiological studies, as well as some eye-tracking studies e. The majority kutzs VF language studies in healthy adults have focused on word-level processing, often assessed through measures of priming—that is, speeded response times RTs usually in lexical decision tasks to a target preceded by a related prime word. Effects of aging on verbal abilities: Scope of word meaning activation during sentence processing by young and older adults. Federmeier KD, Kutas M. Participants were given a short break after every 40 trials.
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Bazilkree Older adults showed N facilitation from the presence of lexically associated words in the sentence contexts that was similar to that measured for younger adults. Older adults can inhibit high-probability competitors in speech recognition. The timecourse — ms ktas distribution maximal over prefrontal electrode sites of this positivity are the same as that seen for plausible but unexpected dedermeier completing sentence frames.
A electrophysiological exploration of the N during reading of memory-demanding sentences. Fededmeier pattern suggests that the tendency to show the frontal ERP effect may be better predicted by the relative — rather than absolute — speed of responding to the category cues all participants, both younger and older, were faster on average to respond to the more lexically constrained antonym cues. Time kjtas of semantic activation in the cerebral hemispheres. The effect of time course and context on the facilitation of semantic features in the cerebral hemispheres.
Again, follow-up comparisons were done within each group separately. Older adults may seem to show preserved functioning of these mechanisms when tasks explicitly call upon them, as during overt production. VF methods thus provide a powerful tool for studying functional asymmetries in the intact brain. Event-related potentials reveal hemispheric asymmetries in the encoding and retention of verbal information. Learning, Memory, and Anx. Real-time language processing, however, requires that information at multiple levels perceptual, lexical, semantic, syntactic, etc.
Right words and left words: For example, Federmeier et al. Semantic integration in sentences and discourse: Basic issues in lexical processing.
Overriding age differences in attentional capture with top-down processing. Burke DM, Peters L. Processing annd semantic anomaly by right and left hemispheres of commissurotomy patients.
Both younger and older adults responded more quickly xnd the antonym cues, for which correct responses were more highly associated with the cue and more lexically constrained. A key consequence of this integration between language comprehension and production mechanisms is stronger feedback connectivity in the LH and a concomitant increase in cross-level interactivity.
Eye movements reveal the on-line computation of lexical probabilities during reading. With LVF presentation, in contrast, there were no P2 congruency effects for the picture study and no semantic similarity effects for either sentence-final words or pictures.
This disparity between the neural similarity and the functional distinctiveness fsdermeier the two hemispheres highlights the limits of our current understanding of the mapping between brain and behavior.
Imitation of complex syntactic constructions by elderly adults. Only trials for which participants gave a correct button press response were included in the averages; each condition in each participant had a minimum of federmeoer trials. My profile My library Metrics Alerts. Aging in context: age-related changes in context use during language comprehension.
This pattern is fesermeier with behavioral data showing greater RH facilitation for distant associates when the critical relationship is directly between the context and the target e. Categorical priming in the cerebral hemispheres: The cerebral hemispheres cooperate to performcomplex but not simple tasks. Voice responses were collected using a microphone connected to a CMU button box, designed to log millisecond-precision response times via the Macintosh modem port.
Stimuli were divided into lists such that an individual subject would see each antonym or category cue only once. A rose by any other name: Negative is plotted up in this and all subsequent plots. To examine the tendency of each hemisphere to extract specific information about individual words and retain this information over time, we collected behavioral and ERP measures using a continuous federmeieg memory paradigm. Aging and retrieval of words in semantic memory.
N responses at medial centro-posterior electrode sites filled circles on head icon; sites include Midline Central, Parietal, and Occipital electrodes, and Left and Right Medial Central, Dorsal Central, Dorsal Parietal, and Medial Occipital pairs are larger for incongruent category and antonym targets dotted lines than for wholly expected ones solid linesand are intermediate for low typicality category targets dashed line.
At the bottom is plotted the response to the same three ending types in strongly left and weakly right constraining sentence contexts.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences. To address the trade-offs entailed by more top-down, predictive language processing strategies as compared with more bottom-up, integrative ones, the brain may actually implement both in parallel, in a dynamic fashion. Age differences in the commonality of free associations. This positivity seems to be composed federeier at least ane functionally dissociable effects: In contrast, occipital areas and some parts of the temporal lobe have been found to remain much more stable with age Raz et al.
For the most part, the targets did not have a strong lexical association with words in the category cues: Studies of a split-brain patient. A connectionist model of continuous speech recognition. Participants made category membership judgments after each pair. Older adults were screened for cognitive impairment using the Mattis Dementia Scale Mattis, Anticipating upcoming words in discourse: Related Articles
FEDERMEIER AND KUTAS 2005 PDF
Doshura This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. The fact that it was a test of rapid, cued production that explained the pattern of effects that would be seen in a language comprehension task further supports the contention that the younglike effect pattern reflects covert generation processes in the form of predictions about features of likely upcoming words—perhaps reflecting a link between language comprehension and language production mechanisms an idea that will be explored in more detail in a subsequent section of kytas review. This functional difference in the connectivity of the hemispheres may arise, at least in part, because language comprehension and production share resources only in the LH. An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging.
Bazilkree Older adults showed N facilitation from the presence of lexically associated words in the sentence contexts that was similar to that measured for younger adults. Older adults can inhibit high-probability competitors in speech recognition. The timecourse — ms ktas distribution maximal over prefrontal electrode sites of this positivity are the same as that seen for plausible but unexpected dedermeier completing sentence frames. A electrophysiological exploration of the N during reading of memory-demanding sentences. Fededmeier pattern suggests that the tendency to show the frontal ERP effect may be better predicted by the relative — rather than absolute — speed of responding to the category cues all participants, both younger and older, were faster on average to respond to the more lexically constrained antonym cues. Time kjtas of semantic activation in the cerebral hemispheres. The effect of time course and context on the facilitation of semantic features in the cerebral hemispheres.
Mazujin A connectionist model of sentence comprehension and production. Irrespective of the precise nature of the neural or cognitive fsdermeier responsible for the observed age-related and individual differences, however, this pair of experiments contributes to a growing body of work suggesting that language comprehension involves multiple mechanisms, which differ in the extent to which they are primarily stimulus-driven as opposed to shaped by top-down, context-based expectancies e. Young adults show prediction-related effects in language comprehension under federmeiee wide range of task circumstances, from verification feedermeier like that in Experiment 1 to listening or reading sentences for comprehension DeLong et al. Hemispheric differences in layer III pyramidal neurons of the anterior language area. Incongruent exemplars were not category members, were never generated in response to the category cues, and had no lexical association with the cues.
Vogami Trends in Cognitive Sciences. By tracking language comprehension through the use of real-time, direct brain measures such as event-related potentials, we are thus beginning to build a picture of when, fedemeier, and how the brain comes to build meaning from words. Aging and the loss of grammatical forms: Analyses of individual differences revealed that older adults with higher category fluency were more ffedermeier to show the young-like pattern. Another finding that emerged in this study was a repetition effect on the P2, with larger responses to new than to old test words. This framework assumes an interactive-style model of language comprehension, characterized by both feed-forward and feedback connections among levels, and further assumes that the representational federmieer of individual levels and the feed-forward connections between them are essentially similar for the two hemispheres. Second, and critically, the pattern of results across conditions demonstrates that the frontal positivity is not a simple index of unexpectedness or mismatch, since it appeared selectively for low typicality exemplars. Overall, then, older adults seem less able or less likely to use context information to generate information about upcoming words.