Shaktirn Unlike pressing a chord on a piano, the chord is recognized only after all the keys or mouse buttons are released. Macro keys, and multiple modes are also easily implemented with a user space driver. Braille comes closest, keyboxrd it has been extended to eight bits. Eighth International Symposium on Wearable Computers. As the number of keys is low the button areas can be made bigger and easier to hit on the small screen.
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Principles of operation[ edit ] An ergonomic chorded keyboard without the board is known as a keyer. Each key is mapped to a number and then can be mapped to a corresponding letter or command. By pressing two or more keys together the user can generate many combinations.
Unlike pressing a chord on a piano, the chord is recognized only after all the keys or mouse buttons are released. Since Engelbart introduced the keyset, several different designs have been developed based on similar concepts. As a crude example, each finger might control one key which corresponds to one bit in a byte , so that using seven keys and seven fingers, one could enter any character in the ASCII set—if the user could remember the binary codes.
Due to the small number of keys required, chording is easily adapted from a desktop to mobile environment. Practical devices generally use simpler chords for common characters e. These portable devices first became popular with the wearable computer movement in the s.
Thad Starner from Georgia Institute of Technology and others published numerous studies    showing that two handed chorded text entry was faster and yielded fewer errors than on a QWERTY keyboard. Currently stenotype machines hold the record for fastest word entry.
Many stenotype users can reach words per minute. However, stenographers typically train for three years before reaching professional levels of speed and accuracy. History[ edit ] The earliest known chord keyboard was part of the "five-needle" telegraph operator station, designed by Wheatstone and Cooke in , in which any two of the five needles could point left or right to indicate letters on a grid.
It was designed to be used by untrained operators who would determine which keys to press by looking at the grid , and was not used where trained telegraph operators were available. The first widespread use of a chord keyboard was in the stenotype machine used by court reporters, which was invented in and is still in use.
The output of the stenotype was originally a phonetic code that had to be transcribed later usually by the same operator who produced the original output , rather than arbitrary text—automatic conversion software is now commonplace.
In , the five-bit Baudot telegraph code and a matching 5-key chord keyboard was designed to be used with the operator forming the codes manually.
The code is optimized for speed and low wear: chords were chosen so that the most common characters used the simplest chords. But telegraph operators were already using typewriters with QWERTY keyboards to "copy" received messages, and at the time it made more sense to build a typewriter that could generate the codes automatically, rather than making them learn to use a new input device. The numbers 0 through 9 were represented by one punch; 26 letters were represented by combinations of two punches, and symbols were represented by combinations of two or three punches.
When Louis Braille invented it, it was produced with a needle holing successively all needed points in a cardboard sheet. In , Frank Haven Hall , superintendent of the Illinois Institute for the Education of the Blind, created the Hall Braille Writer, which was like a typewriter with 6 keys, one for each dot in a braille cell.
Braille, like Baudot, uses a number symbol and a shift symbol, which may be repeated for shift lock, to fit numbers and upper case into the 63 codes that 6 bits offer. After World War II, with the arrival of electronics for reading chords and looking in tables of "codes", the postal sorting offices started to research chordic solutions to be able to employ people other than trained and expensive typists.
In , an important concept was discovered: chordic production is easier to master when the production is done at the release of the keys instead of when they are pressed.
Researchers at IBM investigated chord keyboards for both typewriters and computer data entry as early as , with the idea that it might be faster than touch-typing if some chords were used to enter whole words or parts of words. A design by IBM Fellow Nat Rochester had 14 keys that were dimpled on the edges as well as the top, so one finger could press two adjacent keys for additional combinations. Doug Engelbart began experimenting with keysets to use with the mouse in the mid s.
Engelbart used the keyset with his left hand and the mouse with his right to type text and enter commands. The mouse buttons marked selections and confirmed or aborted commands. A one button version of the mouse was incorporated into the Apple Macintosh but Steve Jobs decided against incorporating the chorded keyset.
In the early s, Philips Research labs at Redhill, Surrey did a brief study[ citation needed ] into small, cheap keyboards for entering text on a telephone. One solution used a grid of hexagonal keys with symbols inscribed into dimples in the keys that were either in the center of a key, across the boundary of two keys, or at the joining of three keys.
Pressing down on one of the dimples would cause either one, two or three of the hexagonal buttons to be depressed at the same time, forming a chord that would be unique to that symbol. With this arrangement, a nine button keyboard with three rows of three hexagonal buttons could be fitted onto a telephone and could produce up to 33 different symbols. That solution is still alive and proposed by Fastap and Unitap among others, and a commercial phone has been produced and promoted in Canada during Braille comes closest, as it has been extended to eight bits.
The only proposed modern standard, GKOS or Global Keyboard Open Standard  can support most characters and functions found on a computer keyboard but has had little commercial development. Open-source designs[ edit ] A key USB keyboard adapted into a chording keyboard. All phonetic keystrokes may be accomplished by one and two-key chords of the home keys on the top row. Plover  is a free, open-source, cross-platform program intended to bring realtime stenographic technology not just to stenographers, but also to hobbyists using anything from professional Stenotype machines to low-cost NKRO gaming keyboards.
With a configuration file, any joystick or gamepad can be turned into a chorded keyboard. This design philosophy was decided on to lower the cost of building devices, and in turn lower the entry barrier to becoming familiar with chorded keyboards. Macro keys, and multiple modes are also easily implemented with a user space driver.
It is implemented on two popular mobile phones, each provided with software disambiguation, which allows users to avoid using the space-bar. Multiambic keyers are similar to chording keyboards but without the board, in that the keys are grouped in a cluster for being handheld, rather than for sitting on a flat surface. Chording keyboards are also used as portable but two handed input devices for the visually impaired either combined with a refreshable braille display or vocal synthesis.
Such keyboards use a minimum of seven keys, where each key corresponds to an individual braille point, except one key which is used as a spacebar. In some applications, the spacebar is used to produce additional chords which enable the user to issue editing commands, such as moving the cursor , or deleting words.
Note that the number of points used in braille computing is not 6, but 8, as this allows the user, among other things, to distinguish between small and capital letters, as well as identify the position of the cursor. As a result, most newer chorded keyboards for braille input include at least nine keys.
Touch screen chordic keyboards are available to smartphone users as an optional way of entering text. As the number of keys is low the button areas can be made bigger and easier to hit on the small screen.
The most common letters do not necessarily require chording as is the case with the GKOS keyboard optimised layouts Android app where the twelve most frequent characters only require single keys. Another early commercial model was the six-button Microwriter , designed by Cy Endfield and Chris Rainey, and first sold in Microwriting is the system of chord keying and is based on a set of mnemonics.
It was designed only for right-handed use. In the Octima 8 keys cord keyboard was presented by Ergoplic Kebords Ltd an Israeli Startup that was founded by Israeli researcher with intensive experience in Man Machine Interface design. The keyboard had 8 keys one for each finger and additional 3 keys that enabled the production of numbers, punctuations and control functions. Its key combinations were based on a mnemonic system that enabled fast and easy touch type learning. Within a few hours the user could achieve a typing speed similar to hand writing speed.
The unique design also gave a relief from hand stress Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and allowed longer typing sessions than traditional keyoards. It was multi-lingual supporting English, German, French and Hebrew.
The BAT is a 7-key hand-sized device from Infogrip, and has been sold since It provides one key for each finger and three for the thumb. See also the on-screen virtual keyset at Teague Labs. It is available via the Apple app store. The finger pad positions are adjustable to fit your hand size. It also works for left handed users and has a live speech output facility that could be helpful for people with speech impairments. GKOS and ComboKey[ edit ] The GKOS  is a 6-key keyboard with a different signs and commands allocation of the 63 different chords in order to provide all PC keyboard functions and to make entering letters and numbers lighter by having to press fewer keys simultaneously.
The 6 physical keys are intended to be on the back of the device and to be operated with the six free fingers of two hands holding the device . Another option is to have virtual GKOS keys positioned towards the sides of a touch sensitive screen.
This GKOS for thumbs has additional keys to enable all combos by only one keypress per hand. There is an Android keyboard application ComboKey Plus enabling e. EkaPad[ edit ] The EkaPad  is a key chorded keyboard operated with the four fingers of one hand. It is supported on the thumb. With the 9 main keys, operated by the index, middle, and ring fingers , 2 prefix keys and one delete key, the EkaPad can produce all the inputs of a standard qwerty keyboard with one, two, and a few three finger chords.
For some characters one or two prefix chords are required. With each of the three fingers limited to its own row, chords are possible with 3 fingers. EkaPad uses 66 of these accessible chords. In addition, the EkaPad can store text strings and keyboard shortcuts. Like many other chorded keyboards, it can be used with one hand. EkaPads are no longer manufactured at this writing.
FrogPad[ edit ] The FrogPad is a key chorded keyboard about the size of a numeric keypad that can be used with one hand, and is optimized by character frequency. It is a wireless one-handed chord keyboard that places two keys under each finger in order to utilize one hand for typing. Typically only two fingers are needed for any operations.
Each key is essentially a shift key so that with ten keys, there are ten single keystrokes and dozens of two and three key combinations. The alphabet is produced with a single press for ten letters or by shifting with either thumb for sixteen more. Changing modes, such as number lock, can make other input such as numbers, provided with a single keystroke. This avoids complex chords while providing enough keystrokes for efficient typing and allows for some unique implementations such as typing with gloves or on a steering wheel.
A video game controller called the X-SKIN, using this system, was expected to be commercially available by  to help make Morphs popular on console systems and ease entry of common data such as a username and password, but the USB device was never made commercially available.
The IN10DID chording system can be applied in single hand configurations, two handed or with one key at a time if desired. Claimed advantages of the IN10DID method are the diversity of devices, limited motion and simple chords.
Twiddler[ edit ] The Twiddler  is a fully featured key keyboard plus mouse designed to fit in the palm of one hand. It was originally introduced in the early s by Handykey and is currently being produced by Tek Gear Tek Gear acquired Handykey on April 30, It is popular among wearable computer researchers and hobbyists due to its ease of use, large community of users, and active support by the manufacturer.
Every single and multi-key chord on the Twiddler can be customized by the end user. Chords are not limited to single keystrokes - multiple keystrokes can be sent with a single chord press.
GKOS KEYBOARD PDF
Notify administrators if there is objectionable content in this page. As a result, most newer chorded keyboards for braille input include at least nine keys. Plover  is a free, open-source, cross-platform program intended to bring realtime stenographic technology not just kejboard stenographers, but also to hobbyists using anything from professional Stenotype machines to low-cost NKRO gaming keyboards. Family Sharing With Family Sharing set up, up to six family members can use this app.
Mechanical GKOS keyboard for phones and tablets.
Principles of operation[ edit ] An ergonomic chorded keyboard without the board is known as a keyer. Each key is mapped to a number and then can be mapped to a corresponding letter or command. By pressing two or more keys together the user can generate many combinations. Unlike pressing a chord on a piano, the chord is recognized only after all the keys or mouse buttons are released. Since Engelbart introduced the keyset, several different designs have been developed based on similar concepts. As a crude example, each finger might control one key which corresponds to one bit in a byte , so that using seven keys and seven fingers, one could enter any character in the ASCII set—if the user could remember the binary codes.
Advantages of the physical GKOS keyboard 1. The keyboard takes up no space on the front panel or on the display area. Low cost and easy to integrate on a small device few keys, easy to find place for. The same hardware suits most languages simplifies production 4. Simple enough for the beginner on-screen help for immediate start. Suitable for fast typing experienced user: wpm, expert: wpm 6. Does not require full attention of the typist no eye stress due to watching a character list etc.
Zuzahn That solution is still alive and proposed by Fastap and Unitap among others, and a commercial phone has been produced and promoted in Canada during Change the name also URL address, possibly the category of the page. It provides one key for each finger and three for the thumb. Braille, like Baudot, uses a number symbol and a shift symbol, which may be repeated for shift lock, to fit numbers and upper case into the 63 codes that 6 bits offer. With this arrangement, a nine button keyboard with three rows of three hexagonal buttons could be fitted onto a telephone and could produce up to 33 different symbols. Physical SureType Telephone 9-key E. The 6 physical keys are intended to be on the back of the device and to be operated with the six free fingers of two hands holding the device . Touch screen chordic keyboards are available to smartphone users as an optional way of entering text.