Substantially updated, this revised edition of Why Viewers Watch presents recent research, overlooked past studies and fresh survey data to offer an alternative perspective on the role of television and how it serves its viewers psychologically. He also examines the phenomenon of media snobbery - anti-television attitudes proliferated by those who want to feel superior to others by denigrating television viewing. Fowles asserts that the appeals of mass advertising reflect the motivational state of the targeted audience and that these motivational states anticipate socio-cultural change. Using advertising of , , and , Fowles determined that the unsatisfied motives of Americans do vary over time. From this data, he constructs a forecast of our socio-cultural state in and predicts an increasi Advertising has permeated our popular culture as much as any other aspect of the media.

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The need to feel safe The need for aesthetic sensations The need to satisfy curiosity Physiological needs: food, drink, sleep, etc. Note that an advertisement has to make an appeal to these things at the time. Explanations: 1. The need for sex is just what it says. It is not the need for love. Fowles found that advertisers very rarely made this appeal.

Nudity or depictions of actual sexual intercourse in an ad tended to turn off viewers or overwhelm the product. People remembered the nudity and not the product being sold.

The need for affiliation is what most of us think of as "sex sells. Advertisers use this appeal very, very often. The need to nurture is an innate need in all of us to take care of helpless creatures and persons.

Think of ads for cold products. The need for guidance is our basic need for help from someone wise and experienced. Ads that feature a wise, trusted, or knowledgeable expert -- the investment expert, the mortgage leader, the medical doctor -- are relying upon our need for help and guidance.

The need to aggress is our basic need to sometimes be violent toward others. Advertisers make this appeal quite often, although in shaded ways. Ads that show a product being the loudest, most intimidating, or showing a person defeating enemies in a cartoon-like manner are frequently alluding to our need to be aggressive. The need to achieve is the basic need to solve the unsolvable. Do you want to be the only one to get everything done on time and look good in the process?

Well, the ad that promises you this is appealing to your need to achieve. The need to dominate on the other hand is the need not to be physically violent, but the need to be in charge and in control of others. It is the need to have others acknowledge your power and status.

The ad that has people at a party shout out, "Tim! He is cooler than they are, and he dominates them. The need for prominence is the need for fame, for having acknowledgment from others, admiration. Unlike "domination," it does not involve triumph or competition, necessarily, but simply everyone recognizing how cool, how beautiful, how strong, how competent, how fascinating, you are. A makeup ad that tells the viewer to "free the inner goddess" may make this appeal, if it shows a room fool of people admiring the heck out of the model.

The need for attention is simply the innate desire to be looked-at and noticed. Men and women have this need, and lots of it, and it is especially acute during adolescence and early adulthood.

Notice that this is not the need for being famous or admired -- just seen and looked upon. We all want to be in charge of our own lives and our outcomes. The need to escape is pretty obvious, and when you see it used, it will be pretty clear. Advertisers will promise the ability to "get away from it all" in a car, or with a beer your own private beach. The need to feel safe is just what it says. Think of all those TV commercials featuring burglars and old people who have medical crises: the products promise safety and guidance.

Some advertisers, sometimes, will use beauty alone to make a pitch. This is very rare, though. A pretty person does not count. This one is obvious. We all need to know what we want to know. Appeals to physical needs are, not surprisingly, pretty rare in advertising. A legitimately hungry person does not need a Snickers bar or beef jerky.

That person needs an apple, or a meal. What to do with this list: Look at your ad s and figure out which appeal s the advertiser is making.

Often the copy will make a different appeal from the graphic. However, this list of psychological appeals will serve as our "analytical tool" for breaking down an ad.



The need to feel safe The need for aesthetic sensations The need to satisfy curiosity Physiological needs: food, drink, sleep, etc. Note that an advertisement has to make an appeal to these things at the time. Explanations: 1. The need for sex is just what it says. It is not the need for love.


Advertising’s 15 Basic Appeals Essay

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Ad Takeover. Jim Fowles’ Advertising’S Fifteen Basic Appeals

Fowles got his ideas about the appeals from studying advertisements and using interviews by Henry A. Murray, a Harvard professor. Fowles separates the appeals into 15 parts and offers details on how each is used and how frequently. His purpose it to inform marketing, marketing and media trainees, and also other educators on how to us ads to attract the general public. Also, he wished to inform the public on how they are being affected. The target market is generally trainees who are studying media. Fowles does a great and reliable job of getting his point throughout.

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