The picture readily enlarges itself into a network of such centers, connected to one another by wide-band communication lines and to individual users by leased-wire services. In such a system, the speed of the computers would be balanced, and the cost of the gigantic memories and the sophisticated programs would be divided by the number of users. Licklider, Man-Computer Symbiosis , He also developed the concepts that led to the idea of the Netizen. Licklider started his scientific career as an experimental psychologist and professor at MIT interested in psychoacoustics, the study of how the human ear and brain convert air vibrations into the perception of sound.

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In , J. It was his vision that man and machine would work together to accomplish great things. So how are we doing? I had to do all of those things while preparing this article. The Associated Press has no qualms about such things, though. They accurately provide game stats and player accomplishments for thousands of games across the U.

But they could not subjectively describe how the warmth of the sun felt upon the face, or the waxing and waning energy of the crowd, or the thrill of victory versus the agony of defeat. Tech moves fast! Stay ahead of the curve with Techopedia! Join nearly , subscribers who receive actionable tech insights from Techopedia.

He likened it to the symbiotic relationships found in nature, such as the way the insect Blastophaga grossorun pollinates the fig tree. The two need each other to survive, the insect and the tree. Time for Thinking But do humans need computers? Can we survive without them? Try it for a day or two and see how you make out. We may not have been dependent on them before, but it seems that we surely are now. The general purpose machine that we stare into and fervently punch commands into incessantly through the day gives us the news, entertains us, keeps us in touch with others, and tells us the time of day.

Our relationships with our computers may be more one-sided and less symbiotic than Licklider described. His concern was that he was spending much more time developing information than digesting it. Unfortunately Babbage never finished the construction of the 19th-century digital computers he designed. He said that computers would have to improve significantly before real man-computer symbiosis could take place.

It would require developments in computer time sharing , memory components, memory organization, programming languages , and input and output equipment. The state of computing in was a bit more primitive than it is today. Who Makes the Decisions? What about computer time sharing? That obstacle has been overcome. Memory components and organization?

Programming languages? Licklider hoped for a computer that could handle all the mundane work so that he could spend more time doing what humans do best: thinking. The computers have been hand-fed reams of information by data entry personnel, and they use all this data to come up with a possible diagnosis. Thankfully, the final word remains with the flesh-and-blood doctors. Would you want a machine to make critical decisions about your health?

Would 2, words be enough? Such questions would require the expertise of acousticians and linguists. What would it take for humans and machines to communicate with each other through formal language?

Strangely enough, the problem of language has been a puzzle for philosophers for centuries. How can anyone use language effectively to grasp the complexities of the universe?

Aristotle said that formal knowledge begins with the establishment of definitions and proceeds to an analysis of various levels of cause-and-effect. Frankly, we have trouble enough teaching other humans to think critically. How can we possibly impart this skill to a computer? Symbiosis vs. To what extent would artificial intelligence be capable of rivaling human intellectual performance in the future?

AI may have some limitations of its own. Licklider was right on target. He has worked in both fixed line and wireless environments across a wide variety of technologies in Europe and America. David is an avid reader and an experienced writer.


Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider

Part 3[ edit ] Part 3 is titled Need for Computer Participation in Formulative and Real-Time Thinking and begins by continuing from a preceding statement on the likelihood of data-processing machines improving human thinking and problem solving. This part proceeds to an outline of an investigation sub-headed A Preliminary and Informal Time-and-Motion Analysis of Technical Thinking, in which Licklider investigated his own activities during the spring and summer of This discussion includes a statement on the currently understood definition of the term computer , as a wide class of calculating, data-processing, and information-storage-and-retrieval machines c. Information storage and retrieval. Licklider begins a comparison between the so-called genotypic similarities between humans and computers, in the seventh passage of this part, with a definition of men as: noisy, narrow-band devices, but their nervous systems have very many parallel and simultaneously active channels and ends with the acknowledgement of differences between inherent processing speed and use of language. The text continues to identify ways in which theoretically active computers would function in ways including; to interpolate , extrapolate , convert static equations or logical statements into dynamic models see also conceptual models. The part concludes with a statement of the functioning of a potential computer as performing diagnosis , pattern-matching , and relevance-recognizing.


Man-Computer Symbiosis

In , J. It was his vision that man and machine would work together to accomplish great things. So how are we doing? I had to do all of those things while preparing this article. The Associated Press has no qualms about such things, though. They accurately provide game stats and player accomplishments for thousands of games across the U.

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人机共生(Man-Computer Symbiosis,J. C. R. Licklider)

Biography[ edit ] Licklider was born on March 11, , in St. Louis, Missouri , United States. Louis , where he received a B. He received a Ph. Thereafter, he worked at Harvard University as a research fellow and lecturer in the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory from to He became interested in information technology , and moved to MIT in as an associate professor, where he served on a committee that established MIT Lincoln Laboratory and a psychology program for engineering students. Taylor Award from the Society of Engineering Psychologists.


1 Introduction

Resources and Help Man-Computer Symbiosis Abstract: Man-computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. The main aims are 1 to let computers facilitate formulative thinking as they now facilitate the solution of formulated problems, and 2 to enable men and computers to cooperate in making decisions and controlling complex situations without inflexible dependence on predetermined programs. In the anticipated symbiotic partnership, men will set the goals, formulate the hypotheses, determine the criteria, and perform the evaluations.

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